We recently talked about mistakes to avoid in your one-on-one’s with your manager. This week, let’s look at mistakes you might be making – and should avoid – in one-on-one’s if you’re the boss.
We’ve talked about some of the basics in the past: Ask your staff member to prepare an agenda; spend most of your time on items that truly require conversation, not just on general updates; ask probing questions to figure out how work is really playing out; and give feedback as a regular part of these meetings. If you’re doing all that, you’re already ahead of the game! But now, let’s refine your check-ins further, by ensuring that you’re not making these four common mistakes.
1. Not taking a few minutes to reflect and prepare before the meeting. Hopefully you’ve asked your staff member to create an agenda for the meeting, but be sure that you’re also setting aside time to review it before you meet. If you’re walking into the meeting cold, you won’t have had the time to really think about the items your staff member has indicated she’d like to discuss, and you probably won’t have had time to think about items of your own that you want to allot time for.
2. Not letting your staff member run the meeting. If you want to help your team members take more ownership over their work, having them run your one-on-one’s is a great way to reinforce that. By putting them in charge of thinking through the agenda and how to make the best use of your time together, and by letting them set the pace of the meeting, you’re giving them responsibility for being thoughtful and strategic about what they need from you in order to keep their realms running as effectively as possible. Coach people to do this, and you’ll reap the benefits through a more engaged team.
3. Only talking about ongoing work or projects that are coming up, and neglecting to debrief work that recently finished. It’s easy to fall into this habit – after all, work that’s still in process or coming up quickly on the horizon is the most urgent and pressing. But if you don’t set aside time to talk over how recently completed work went, you’re losing out on one of the most valuable opportunities you have to develop your staff members’ skills and set them up to get better and better at what they do (or to talk about ways someone might be falling short, if that’s the case).
4. Not prioritizing them. If you cancel check-ins, regularly reschedule, or don’t hold them at all, you’re shortchanging yourself and your team. Sometimes managers feel that they talk so often with staff members throughout the week that there’s no need for a separate check-in, but even in that context there are real benefits to check-ins: They provide structured time to reflect on progress, give feedback, and talk about bigger picture issues that often won’t otherwise come up in the course of day to day work.
How do you effectively measure the success of a project and then how do you communicate that success to stakeholders? In this interview with program manager Adam Kowal, from Intuit QuickBase, we asked him about ways to help you make sure you’re using and reporting on the “right” metrics.
Alexandra Levit: Adam, what should you do at the planning stages of a project to ensure that you are able to effectively measure success later?
Adam Kowal: Ensure the team and leaders are aligned on what you are trying to achieve with the project. Think about why you are trying to affect change. If you don’t have alignment here, all is lost. Then, facilitate a session to brainstorm the quantitative or qualitative metrics that will be good leading indicators of success and final indicators of success. Understand what your dials are and how you are going to turn them – so you can watch if turning the dial makes any difference.
Limit the important success metrics to no more than three. If you have too many, you probably don’t really know how to measure success. Also, watch out for people trying to solve for the “number,” which could result in bad business decisions made to ensure hitting metrics.
Alex: Do you have an example of this?
Adam: Sure, how about measuring call centers on “time on phone” without realizing that reps are creating terrible customer experiences and not up-selling/cross-selling in an effort to get the customer off the phone faster.
Alex:What metrics are most eye-catching to senior leaders and why?
Adam: This is a three-part answer. 1) The most eye-catching metrics to senior leaders are ones that don’t add up! You must ensure you have good data and have tested your instrumentation process. 2) In my experience, a good PM will align with senior leaders on what metrics are most important to their group and the business as a whole. Make sure you’re not wasting time crunching numbers no one cares about. 3) Information that means something is eye-catching. Don’t put the onus on senior leaders to distill all your data into action. Do it for them and talk through your logic.
Alex: What mistakes do you see PMs making most often with respect to measurement?
Adam: Changing the goal posts willy-nilly. If you determine over time that some of your metrics aren’t right, don’t change them in a vacuum. Think end-to-end about the impact of the change and discuss the issue with your stakeholders. Don’t spin on it for weeks – push for a decision ASAP.
Alex: Once you have initial results, how can you keep measurement momentum going so that you are able to report on long-term success?
Adam: It’s the PM’s responsibility to champion ongoing attention to this. Metrics are highly sought after in the first few months of a program, but then people tend to get metric-itis. But the one time you don’t check the metrics, something important will pop up that you’ll miss. One helpful tool is a web-based dashboard report that provides a consistent look at your metrics and gets stakeholders into the habit of doing regular quick checks.
Alex: Any final recommendations?
Adam: Yes, one more thing. Partner early with whoever owns system reporting or needs to build instrumentation. Often reporting and instrumentation are an afterthought, and it’s too late to do them right – or do them at all. Be planful when it comes to these, and make them part of the project requirements at step one.
In our previous interview with Adam, we asked,”Are you collecting customer feedback the right way?”
Over 300 million members in 200 countries use LinkedIn as a favorite professional social network, a way to connect with both friends and potential employers. But if you consider it merely a job search and recruiting tool, you’re missing out. LinkedIn is the single most powerful tool for business development and sales leads—if you know how to use it. Lucky for you, we do. Let’s get LinkedIn to work for you.
Before we can start, there are three preliminary steps you must take:
Create your profile with your audience in mind.
Under your profile summary and the description under your current job, write a small “pitch” on behalf of your company…while still conveying who you are as a person.
For instance, you might say, “I have been a sales and business development professional for the last ten years, and it is my personal mission to ensure customers have the best possible experience when they work with my company. If your company needs to convey its strategic value to its target clients, call me. My company can help yours shine.”
Make it easy to contact you: Add your email, Twitter, and even phone number to your profile.
Connect to your existing contacts.
Ideally, you should be linked to more than 500 connections. Your colleagues, former and present, should be the first people you contact. Quality counts as much as quantity. Make sure you are linked to a few leaders of your industry…even if you don’t know them personally.
It may take time for some people to accept your invitations. Be patient.
Join relevant Groups.
Join up to 50 professional associations, industry groups, alumni groups, or geographically specific groups. Remember to focus on the most popular ones in your field.
LinkedIn’s search algorithm gives you results that are displayed in order of keyword relevance, as well as your degree of connection. Those who are first-degree connections come first, followed by second-degree connections (you know at least one person in common), followed by people with whom you share a group, followed by 3rd degree connections and those you have no connection with. Therefore, joining all the right groups is crucial to adding connections.
Once you have set your account up for success, you can leverage the Advanced search of LinkedIn, a powerful tool for reaching the right decision-makers.
To do this, click on the word “Advanced” next to the small magnifying glass icon on the top of the screen.
On the next page, you’ll see the “Relationship” section in the middle. It will default to only selecting 1st/2nd/Group-level connections. Be sure to select 3rd degree connections to get all results.
Here’s where the fun happens:
Search for your future client by job title and company name. If you want to find all the chief technology officers at Aetna, you can complete that exact search. (To make sure you are getting search results of only people currently at Aetna, select “Current” under “Company.”)
Search by a specific phrase, using quotation marks. For instance, if you are searching for alumni of Columbia University, you can do an Advanced Search and enter list “Columbia University” (in quotes) to get alumni of Columbia University. If you search just for Columbia University (no quotes), you will find alumni of the University of British Columbia and several other unrelated schools.
You can use Boolean search terms as well— “OR” “AND,” or “NOT” (in all capital letters). For example, perhaps you want to search for CTOs and CIOs at Aetna. You can enter, under “Job Title,” the following search string: “Chief Technology Officer” OR “Chief Information Officer” OR “CIO” OR “CTO.” To generate a list of CIOs in the oil and energy industry within 50 miles of Houston, you can search by job title and delimit by industry and zip code.
Note: If a contact is a 3rd degree connection, you can either upgrade and send InMail, or copy and paste the person’s “headline” and first name into Google, which usually reveals their full profile and a “Connect” button.
Within your search results, look at the left-hand side of the page. You can also find the top five current companies of people with certain job titles, which can help you expand your search:
You can also look under company pages to find other companies that “people also viewed” to find similar companies and key groups:
And for many individual people in your search results, you can find “people similar to” and “people also viewed” for that contact person—all great sources for additional leads.
Here is an example of “people similar to”:
And “people also viewed”:
Once you find your ideal target, you have to connect with them. To connect, be sure to click to view the person’s full profile (clicking the “Connect” button from the search results page—or from the mobile app—will not allow you to customize your invite message).
Finally, write your crucial introduction message, something like, “Does your company need a secure, cloud-based platform for sales management, which allows for your sales team to connect from their mobile devices? I’d love to tell you more about our new software that is perfect for mid-sized companies like yours.” If the invite is accepted, you can follow up with a longer message and a request to chat.
The rest is business history.
I spoke with Jason Falls, who is the SVP of Digital Strategy at Elasticity. Falls is the co-author of two books: No Bullshit Social Media: The All-Business, No-Hype Guide To Social Media Marketing (Que 2011), co-authored with Erik Deckers; and The Rebel’s Guide To Email Marketing (Que 2012), co-authored with DJ Waldow. Falls is also noted for founding SocialMediaExplorer.com, one of the industry’s most widely read blogs. In the following brief interview, he talks about how to get your employees to understand their role with social media, the type of content they should publish, the mistakes employees make, and more.
Dan Schawbel: How do you get your employees to understand what they can and can’t post on social media? What is the best way to align their postings with the company they work for?
Jason Falls: That’s a great question because I can count on one hand how many people actually read the policy manual. The key to ensuring any policy you have is enforced is to continually discuss it and reinforce the good (not just the bad) in the office. Make it a point to find the employees that are really doing a good job of sharing content, aligning with the company and being useful in that realm and showing the rest of your employees what good is. The reason many feel as if they don’t want to be a part of any company effort is they don’t know what good looks like. That, and they think the company is going to try and force them to post. Illustrate what the appropriate use for them is personally and for the company as a whole and they’ll be more apt to want to help.
Schawbel: What types of content can employees share on social media that will make a big impact on the company from both a revenue and thought leadership perspective?
Falls: Any content that makes them (the employee) look smart in the eyes of the ultimate consumer of the company. If you’re in the financial services industry, your social posts that will be most beneficial to your company are those that share good information about investing, saving money, managing money and the like. These can simply be links you share from media sites like the Wall Street Journal, or they can be the company’s posts. The important thing for the employee is to carve out their own reputation as someone who is a resource of good content in that given area. The fact they work for the institution at hand is the residual benefit for the company.
Schawbel: What mistakes do you see employees make on social media? How should a company respond to an employee who is “off-brand”?
Falls: Assuming the employee identifies themselves clearly as an employee of the company (because without this, the company is less affected by their social posts, positively or negatively), the biggest mistake I see is the employee who mixes far too much personal that might be distasteful to some with the posts that support the company’s mission. I think this is why most people defer to the personal account only approach. Twitter and Facebook are more suited for personal connections, so talking about going out for cocktails on the weekend is more natural content there. But when that bio says “Company XYZ” and that drinking Tweet is there, well, that’s not going to be kosher with most employers.
A company should simply reach out to the employee and remind them of the policy. Certainly they can implement some 1st, 2nd and 3rd offense repercussions. But, depending on the nature of the company policy, at the end of the day, the employee either identifies themselves publicly and openly as an employee of the company and follows the rules. Or they remove the company exposure as much as they can and treat it as a personal account. I’m sure there will be litigation and the like to come in the next 5-10 years that will better define this legally, but if I were a company, I would err on the side of assuming you have no right to an individual’s social media accounts unless they are those created for the employee by the company and for company use.
Schawbel: Do you recommend that a company develops social media guidelines or some kind of doctrine to get employees on the same page? Why or why not?
Falls: Certainly. We live in a search engine and social network world. This is where people are spending time, searching for and finding information, sharing conversations and information with their friends and family — and sometimes about companies and products. Consumers are there, so companies need to be. Consumers are employees, too, so their employer needs to ensure they are not detracting from the company in their social postings. While there are lots of various approaches, both liberal and conservative and that benefit the company more or the employee more, each company should have a policy, even if that policy is simply: Don’t do anything foolish.
Schawbel: Based on all of your corporate experience, can you give examples of companies that have been able to successfully align themselves around social media and what they did right?
Falls: The easy answer is Zappos. They empower their employees to represent the company right along with their own personal content, recognizing that people are people and glorious in all their differences, strengths, weaknesses, etc. But these people also work at Zappos and can help you if you need something here. At Cafepress, our policy was that your social networks are yours but behavior there that is detrimental to the company is like behavior at a bar or anywhere else that is detrimental to the company. We certainly encouraged employees to share company content and help remind folks that’s the best place to get custom or personalized products, but it was never a requirement, even for the marketing team. For those that chose to share, they were always positive and aligned with the messaging the company pushed around our content.
So you’re ready to launch a carefully scheduled project plan. You’ve planned backwards and mapped out each stage of the work and who will be responsible for what, and your project plan is a thing of beauty. What could go wrong?
Plenty, it turns out. Here are five of the things most likely to disrupt your project plan if you don’t factor them in from the beginning.
1. Not finding out from the start who needs to be consulted or bought in. While you’re the one who’s overseeing and perhaps doing the work, there may be others in your organization (or even outside of it) who need to be consulted along the way. Don’t assume that you’ll be told this information proactively, either. It’s often the kind of thing that comes up when a project is halfway through or (worse) near the end. So make a point of explicitly inquiring at the start of the project whether there are specific people who need to have input or be on board with how you plan to proceed.
2. Not confirming each part of the schedule with others who are involved. If you’re relying on others to play a role in the work – whether it’s actually doing pieces of it or simply signing off on work – make sure that you’ve confirmed with them that your schedule works on their side. Otherwise, you risk finding out at a crucial point in the project that the person you were counting on to sign off by the end of the week is out of the country on vacation and unreachable.
3. Not getting buy-in from leadership above you to prioritize the work. The important thing to note here isn’t just that your leadership needs to think the work is a good idea and worth doing; it’s that they need to be willing to prioritize it over other uses of time and resources. “Sounds like a good idea – see if you can make it happen” is a different thing than “let’s commit to getting it done by January and here’s a budget to use.” If you’re planning to allocate significant amounts of energy to a project, make sure that the management above you is aligned with you about when it should happen and what that will mean for other demands on your time that might arise.
4. Not being clear with others about the roles you need them to play. Especially when you’re relying on a peer to complete a piece of a project, it’s easy to inadvertently miscommunicate what you’d like that person’s role to be. For example, your coworker might assume that you’re only seeking ideas from her, or that her participation is optional, when in fact you need her to actually complete a piece of work by a specific deadline. Be sure to clarify exactly what roles you’ll need people to play from the start – and don’t hide the message. Saying “It would be great if you were able to put something together by the end of the month” conveys a different message than “I will need final copy from you by October 29 in order to make our printer deadline.”
5. Not checking in with others as the work progresses. Don’t assume that work is progressing as you’d planned simply because you’ve given assignments to others. Instead, make a point of engaging regularly, so that you’ll know if the work is moving forward on schedule or whether course corrections are needed. Otherwise, you risk having a nasty surprise when work isn’t completed on schedule or looks significantly different from what you were envisioning.
Thank you again for joining us on October 8 for our special Expert Webinar Series on Improving Your Business’s Operations and Project Success – with Gordon Tredgold, Founder of Leadership Principles. Gordon shared with you the FAST method for improving business operations and project delivery. This educational event was recorded and may now be watched onDemand.
As promised, below are the questions asked that we were unable to get to during the live event. If you have further questions, please leave them in the comments.
Q: Should one always broadcast who is accountable for certain outcomes? (Some people are tempted to misuse or misinterpret that information as “blame target”.
Gordon Tredgold: It depends on what you mean, “broadcast?”
Accountability is a 2-way street. We need to be clear about what out expectations are, and we need to be sure that we have ensured that they have the right skills, tools and authority levels to do the job. Then the person accountable can accept their accountability. It’s the acceptance of accountability that drives performance not the broadcasting of it. That does have more of a blame target feel to it. I would also advise asking people if there is any reason why they cannot accept accountability, because if there is, then we need to address this. So it’s more of a conversation than a broadcast!
Q: Is/Should accountability always be accompanied by metrics?
GT: There needs to be some transparency into the performance so that we can see whether they are performing well or not, and if not then provide support and assistance.
So where possible I would always like to get metrics. In SMART goals the M is for measurable and we should look to make all our goals measurable. We need to know what success looks like, so that we know when we have achieved it. I can’t just say I am going to go on a diet to become thinner, it’s hard to know whether or not I achieved, it. I would say, I want to drop a dress size, or I want to lose x lbs. Remember the saying, “what we measure we improve.” I am a very strong believer in that.
Q: Is there a difference (in your definition) between “simple” and “elegant?”
GT: Yes, I think that elegant solutions are generally simple, but I wouldn’t necessarily say all simple solutions are elegant. For example, in the NASA and the pen story during the webinar, would you call the pencil an elegant solution?
Q: What are the specific tools that you were talking about for holding one accountable?
GT: We need to have visibility into performance, and in my experience real live data from systems like Intuit QuickBase can be very helpful for achieving that. I am not a big fan of people giving Powerpoint presentations to show progress, I like to see data extracted from systems. Because then we are discussing performance rather than whether the data presented is correct or not. This data could be sales data from Sales systems, or cost centre data coming out of our Accounting systems. In IT operations, I like to get the data directly out of the trouble ticketing systems such as Remedy. We need to have systems of record, and use those. You can use tools like QuickBase to extract and consolidate the information from source systems, and I have also used Excel to achieve the same although that’s a bit old school now.
Q: I may have missed if Gordon recommended a Project Management software?
GT: I think QuickBase is an excellent tool, and can be used to store estimates, plans and be used to provide dashboards which show our actual performance compared to our planned performance. As I mentioned we need to try and create a GPS for our business or operations, so that we can react in a timely manner to achieve our goals, rather than getting into a situation where we are relying on hope and luck, because hope is not a strategy.
Q: What are challenges, if we hold people accountable for execution of process? Could you expand on that?
GT: OK – where I live in Germany there is a rule and a process that states plants need to be watered if the temperature is above 32C/90F.
So people are judged on whether they watered them when the temp is above 90F. Last summer we had 5 days of torrential rain, we had flood, then the 6th day the temp was 92F.
We had people watering plants standing in 6 inches of water. It was madness. If we held people accountable for the plants being healthy and watered, on this day they would have simply said, OK, it doesn’t make sense to water them. Also what happens when it’s 88F for 20 days in a row, surely the temp is not above 90F, but those plants still need watering. If all the plants die, the gardener can always say, but I followed the process? We need to hold people accountable to results rather than process, because it’s difficult to come up with processes which account for every single situation.
I know this is a simple example, but it’s true and I wanted to show what can happen in such situations.
“I am not crazy. My mother had me tested.”—Sheldon Cooper
Devoted fans of the television show, “The Big Bang Theory,” rejoiced when the sitcom about a bunch of nerdy guys entered its eighth season this year, with some 18 million people tuning in for the season’s opener.
But even though it’s America’s most watched show, critics have not been as enthusiastic. One reviewer recently commented that he not only doesn’t watch the show, but he doesn’t know anyone who does. The show consistently loses out on an Emmy, even though Jim Parsons has won four Emmy awards for playing Sheldon Cooper.
So what is it about this show that grabs the attention of so many people despite its lack of critical acclaim? Could it be that we love the fact that the nerd culture has gone mainstream? That for once instead of being stuffed inside a locker by a high school bully, the nerd is successful, has friends and is fun to be around?
One thing that cannot be denied by the constant presence of “Big Bang” (it runs in syndication all hours of the day and night), is that is has exposed many people to the true gifts of the geeks and nerds in this world. The show has made it clear that nerds are capable of more than just writing code or solving a complicated math problem – they are also creative, innovative and collaborative.
If managers are smart, they’ll take the show’s message to heart: It’s time to let nerds be nerds.
In other words, stop trying to make them fit in. They’ll never be like other employees – and that’s a good thing. If managers learn to embrace a geek’s geekiness, organizations can become more competitive, and learn to work smarter and more efficiently.
By giving nerds the freedom to be themselves, we all may learn valuable lessons and benefit from these brilliant minds. Here’s how:
Innovation never stops. While some workers may check work emails after hours, nerds are going to do much more than that. They’re going to think about what they’re working on even during their off hours, because they’re happiest when their brains are challenged. Managers shouldn’t watch the clock when they’ve got nerds on their team – these employees are always going to be seeking challenges and striving for solutions. Consider this clip of Howard working on his robot arm even when hanging out with friends:
They’re always engaged. Nerds don’t turn their brains off. They can’t. They’re always looking for problems, solutions, new ideas, etc. Get a group of them together, and they’ll be even more valuable as they challenge one another. Managers don’t have to worry about coming up with goofy contests or passing out bonuses to get these workers motivated. Nerds are enthusiastic about learning and challenging assumptions – even if it involves how Superman gets his suit cleaned:
Improvement is a way of life. It’s often difficult for managers to ensure the quality of work remains high for every member of a team, but they never have to worry where nerds are concerned. The brains of geeks are wired to solve problems. They can spot inefficiencies that others miss and come up with solutions. That’s why managers shouldn’t confine nerds only to tech problems – these workers should be allowed to unleash their brain power on different issues whether it’s customer service, sales goals or strategic initiatives. Check out how the “Big Bang” nerds quickly strategize on how to turn Penny’s simple idea into a successful business:
They’re more tolerant. Nerds are used to not fitting into conventional settings. Whether it’s Howard living with his mother well into his 30s, Sheldon’s need to wear superhero t-shirts or Leonard’s lactose intolerance, nerds aren’t going to be judgmental of anyone who doesn’t fit a cookie-cutter mold. As diversity becomes more common with international workforces, nerds can help show others how to be more accepting. Consider how helpful and patient Amy is with Sheldon:
Of course, “Big Bang” isn’t real life, but it does highlight that behind those brilliant, nerdy minds in your workplace are real people who have a lot to contribute. Are you missing the boat with your own Sheldon, Leonard, Howard or Raj?
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Photo Credit © CBS.com
If you want new hires to be brought up to speed sooner, then your organization needs to make an investment in better onboarding or risk having ineffective new employees that become disengaged over time.
It’s often been said that it can take a new employee from six months to a year to really become effective in an organization, but in today’s fast-paced environment that’s like saying it’s OK to still use dial-up.
Organizations that hope to remain competitive must ensure that they’re not only hiring qualified workers, but that these new employees will be able to trim their learning curve so their input will be felt as soon as possible.
But onboarding new workers can often be a difficult task, and many organizations fail. For example, half of all hourly workers leave new jobs within the first 120 days, while half of all senior outside hires fail within 18 months in a new position, research shows.
In a report for the Society for Human Resource Management Foundation on effective onboarding, Dr. Talya N. Bauer of Portland State University in Oregon notes that “the faster new hires feel welcome and prepared to do their jobs, the faster they will be able to successfully contribute to the firm’s mission.”
One of the companies cited in Bauer’s report and is often included in “best practices” for onboarding is L’Oreal USA. The company doesn’t end onboarding after a few weeks or months, as do many employers.
Instead, it starts with a welcome of new workers on their first day and then supports each hire with a two-year, six-part integration program. Called“L’Oreal Fit,” the program includes training and roundtable discussions; meetings with key insiders; on-the-job learning supported by line management; and individual mentoring. In addition, new hires at L’Oreal get field and product experiences by being allowed to visit different sites or shadow programs.
“Research shows that organizations that engage in formal onboarding by implementing step-by-step programs for new employees to teach them what their roles are, what the norms of the company are and how they are to behave are more effective than those that do not,” Bauer says.
In other words, employers that use a “sink or swim” approach for new employees may not only delay the effectiveness of their new workers, but drive them out the door.
Mary Ann Masarech, lead consultant of the employee engagement practice at BlessingWhite, says that many development efforts by employers fall short because employers don’t provide “business context” and only focus on training new workers to do certain tasks or processes.
“Without proper business context, manager support, and individual accountability, training can’t deliver the sustainable workforce performance that organizations need,” Masarech says.
She also suggests that employees need to understand how their job fits in with the bigger organizational picture, what skills are most critical to success and receive continual coaching so they can make “course corrections” as soon as possible.
Modern Survey, which offers software to help employers more effectively onboard new workers, writes in a new white paper that Lara Blackert, HR business partner at Compass Minerals, will “often approach new hires by saying, ‘Not only what can you do for us, but what can we, as an organization, do for you?’”
That kind of relationship, experts say, often begins before the new employee steps through the organization’s front door on the first day. For example, those in the “best practices” category send new hires their paperwork and employee benefits information early, allowing them to spend more time on their first day asking questions of HR. Also, getting these tasks out of the way early also gives an employer more time to emphasize the company’s culture on Day 1, they say.
One note of warning: Don’t totally automate the onboarding process. Research finds that those using only computer-based orientation had less understanding of the job than those who received face-to-face orientation.
Experts suggest other ways to make a new hire more effective, such as:
- Making it personal. Ensure the new hire has a dedicated work space waiting, with a handwritten welcome note from the organization. Send an email to current workers to ensure they know the new hire’s name and when he or she is starting, and plan a lunch out with the team for the first day.
- Keeping the new hire visible. New hires may be shy or reserved, but it’s important to introduce the person to other departments as soon as possible. Dedicate a mentor to take the new employee around to other departments to learn their functions and to answer any questions.
- Remembering to touch base. Perhaps a new employee is doing so well that he or she is soon left alone, and the organization believes all is well. But all new hires – no matter how capable or talented – should have periodic check-ins with various team members or managers to ensure they’re on the right track and don’t feel abandoned. “With regular ‘touching base’ meetings, potential problems can be solved before they expand into large problems,” Masarech says. At Microsoft, there are peer mentors who serve as “safe havens” for new employees to ask questions and learn about the culture.
- Giving feedback – often. Making new workers more effective faster means helping them understand not only how they are viewed by the manager, but also by those who interact with them. Using 360-degree feedback, Masarech says, can help “resolve any disagreements early on.” At Capital One, an internal coach interviews direct reports, peers and customers to determine the key challenges a new hire will face in the job. This “Customized New Leader Transition Guide” helps the new hire become familiar faster with performance expectations, goals and even office politics.
It’s estimated that hiring a new white collar worker can cost about $7,000 or even rise to twice or three times that amount for a management position. With that kind of investment, it may be worth revamping your onboarding to make sure your new employee pays off as soon as possible.
What onboarding practices do you find the most effective?
It takes far less effort, time, and money to keep an existing client than secure a new one. Yet getting customers to buy over and over again still presents a challenge for many professionals. To address this, I spoke with two colleagues who have excellent track records when it comes to growing their businesses through existing customers.
Alex: You both have built an impressive following of loyal customers over the last several years. What’s your secret?
Christine: I’ve made providing quality content and inspiring information my priority rather than making money or building a platform. Being relatable to and vulnerable with my audience has created deeper connections to my customers. They feel like they know me, so they want to be loyal. Also, by starting with a specific niche I was able to establish a solid base of customers on whom I could depend once I decided to expand.
Alex: Talking B2B, once you’ve gotten a customer to buy a product or service, how do you get them to buy from you again?
Lindsey: First and most important is letting clients know I appreciate their business. I like to send thank you notes and (appropriate) gifts. I make phone calls the day after an event or project has ended to show my gratitude. I invite clients to any live or virtual events I can, including webinars, events, or seminars that I think they might find valuable.
I also communicate regularly with existing clients through a monthly e-newsletter and interaction on LinkedIn and Twitter. When it comes to social media, I find that engaging with the content my clients are posting is more important than posting my own content.
Finally, I’m always happy to chat with a client about a problem their organization is having or recommend another consultant if they have an issue unrelated to my work. It’s about being of service and genuinely helping them as much as possible.
Alex: What is a mistake you’ve seen others make when trying to build repeat business?
Christine: The biggest mistake is not asking customer for feedback. You have to engage with them while they are using your product or service and find out what they’re thinking. Another mistake is a failure to up level products and services. In order to generate repeat business, the next offer or product needs to be in place.
Lindsey: In my opinion, the biggest mistake is pitching a client strongly before asking what the need is. For example, for a keynote client it would be a mistake to start selling them on another keynote when what they really want next is consulting. Listen, listen, listen.
Alex: What’s a good way to operationalize customer relations so you don’t have to always be remembering to follow up, etc.?
Christine: Auto-responders that come from my personal email work very well for me. A client gets “tagged” when buying a product or service. Then, a feedback email goes out and takes them to a quick survey. Since the message is from my personal email, customers often send direct responses and comments to me. With higher purchase services, I either set auto reminders on my calendar to call the client personally or have a member of my team call and follow up.
Speaking of repeat business, both Christine and Lindsey have new books this month. For guidance on how to cope with disappointment, check out Christine’s Expectation Hangover, and for advice for millennials moving into their first leadership roles, have a look at Lindsey’s Becoming the Boss.
Everyone gets annoyed by coworkers at times, whether it’s rolling your eyes at the guy who chronically monopolizes meetings or being driven to distraction by your cubicle mate’s loud chewing. To some extent, that’s just the reality of working with other people.
But when it’s your boss that you’re annoying, it’s worth paying attention. If you have any of the following seven work habits, you’re almost certainly annoying your manager – and could benefit from a different approach.
1. Presenting guesses as certainties. It’s fine to not always have the answer; a reasonable boss won’t expect you to. But you need to be up-front about it when that’s the case. If you take a guess but frame it as a certainty, there’s a risk that you’re giving your manager wrong information. That means that she’ll be making decisions or taking actions based on bad information – which is a really big deal. So if you’re not sure about something, just say so – and then say you’ll find out.
2. Responding defensively to feedback. If you get upset, hurt, or angry when your manager gives you feedback on your work, you’re making it hard for your boss to do her job. Worse yet, she might start avoiding giving you important feedback that you need to hear. You need to know what you could be doing better, and you’re more likely to hear it if you don’t make it hard for your boss to tell you.
3. Taking forever to get to the point. Your boss is probably busy. When you bring her information, or a problem, or a question, get to the upshot quickly. If you’re giving 10 minutes of background before you ever get to the point, you’re almost certainly frustrating her.
4. Missing deadlines without clearing it in advance. It might be perfectly okay for you to miss a particular deadline – but if you don’t clear that with your manager ahead of time, you’re likely to look really bad: unreliable, disorganized, and flaky. And that’s a recipe for your manager not trusting you in the future, which in turn is a recipe for your manager checking up on you more, which neither of you will like.
5. Neglecting to think about the big picture. Managers have to think about the big picture all the time – how something will affect the team and the organization as a whole. For instance, approving your request for new software might mean that she has to cut her budget somewhere else, plus explain to a different employee why he can’t attend the training course he requested. If you only think about how things will affect you, you’re showing your manager that you don’t have a broad perspective and that you don’t understand the things she cares most about. That will harm you in everything from project assignments to promotion potential to the quality of the relationship overall.
6. Getting stuck in a negativity loop. Everyone has occasional frustrations at work. But if you get caught in them to the point that you’re becoming a toxic presence in the office or the constant naysayer, it’s time to make a fundamental decision: Can you find a way to be reasonably happy at work or is it time to do something else? No good manager will put up with a team member poisoning the atmosphere in the long run (nor will it do your reputation any favors).
7. Hiding behind email. Yes, it can sometimes feel easier to stay behind your computer to hash out difficult subjects. But sometimes you need to pick up the phone or talk to people face-to-face, and your boss will rightly get frustrated if you insist on sticking to email for complicated or sensitive conversations.
The rapidly changing workplace means that we can’t rely on yesterday’s knowledge to keep organizations competitive, argues a new book. Why it may be time to stop relying on experience and turn to another source.
If you could be a rookie at work again, would you?
You might immediately think, “heck, no” considering all the mistakes you made when you were new to the job.
But if you think harder, you might begin to realize that even though you stumbled sometimes, you were a rookie with passion, with drive and with an innovative mindset.
What happened to that person?
That’s what Liz Wiseman believes a lot of people wonder. As author of a new book, “Rookie Smarts: Why Learning Beats Knowing in the New Game of Work,” Wiseman argues that in our rapidly changing workplace, experience can be a curse while inexperience can be a blessing.
She says that through her research, she finds rookies often have a different mindset at work that makes them operate with higher levels of self-awareness and move faster than their experienced peers. Because of their inexperience, rookies are driven to ask questions of those with greater expertise. As a result, they often walk away with better solutions. A more experienced worker, she finds, is more likely to solve an issue on his own without seeking outside expertise or simply follow standard practices.
Wiseman says that while some may consider rookies to be bumbling clods, the reality is that many rookies have nothing to lose so they are often open to new possibilities. They don’t get bogged down in old practices. They are optimistic as they explore new territories, focus on doing things differently and don’t worry about why they can’t do something.
Wiseman and her research team looked at nearly 400 workplace scenarios, noting how rookies took on work assignments compared to veteran workers. That enabled them to identify traits of successful and unsuccessful rookies and veterans.
They found the distinct rookie smarts mindset included:
- The “backpacker” rookies who had a mindset unencumbered by past practices or experience. They were open to new possibilities, explored new territory and didn’t get mired in stale best practices.
- The “hunter-gatherer” rookies looked for experts to help them. They then brought those ideas back to the team, along with the resources necessary to meet challenges.
- The “firewalker” rookies may have lacked confidence in certain situations, but took small, calculated steps. These rookies moved fast and sought feedback to stay on track.
- The “pioneer” rookies kept things simple and looked to meet core needs. These rookies improvised, pushed boundaries and were tireless.
To foster the rookie mindset, even in more experienced employees, Wiseman suggests that managers should “just push people out of their comfort zones,” she says. “I think you can ask people to sort of pivot away from what they normally do.”
For example, you wouldn’t ask a sales professional to suddenly design a new IT process, but that sales professional could be asked to use his skills in interpersonal communications skills in other areas.
“Managers need to look deeply at the fundamental strengths of an employee and think, ‘Is there something there that I can draw on?’” Wiseman says.
Wiseman says that organizations will see a payoff in fostering the rookie mindset because employees are less likely to become bored and disengaged when they’re issued new challenges several times a year. In addition, since many companies don’t always have bonuses or promotions to hand out on a regular basis, keeping employees challenged will help them feel their careers are being developed and boost morale.
In addition, she says that many managers could see their own workloads eased if more employees are challenged regularly. “Let them start doing other things and you will see your load is considerably lighter. It’s a lazy man’s way to employee satisfaction,” she says, laughing.
At the same time, Wiseman says that if employees don’t feel like their managers are embracing the idea of a rookie mindset, they can do it themselves.
“Be quick on the ‘yes,’” she advises. “Say ‘yes’ to things and then you can figure out how to do them. Continually sign up to do hard things.”
Among her suggestions to move into a rookie mindset:
- Ask naïve questions. Ask the questions a newcomer would ask. Or, ask a novice to define the questions for you.
- Seek expert advice. The next time you are faced with a challenge that falls within your area of expertise, avoid the temptation to jump in. Instead, reach out to at least five other experts with your questions.
- Get your hands dirty. Getting closer to the action can help you stay connected with the needs of your customers, stakeholders or employees.
- Attach yourself to a problem. Commit to a challenge and then let it drag you into unknown territory. Unfamiliar places help you to think, rethink and co-create.
- Spend time with amateurs. Move away from your peer group sometimes to get to know newcomers. Watch how they work and play, and learn from them.
What do you think of fostering a rookie mindset in your career or organization?
I spoke to David Hornik, who has worked with technology startups throughout the software sector. In 2000, David joined August Capital to invest broadly in information technology companies, with a focus on enterprise application and infrastructure software, as well as consumer facing software and services. Prior to joining August Capital, David was an intellectual property and corporate attorney at Venture Law Group and Perkins Coie. In his legal practice, David represented high tech startups in all aspects of their formation, financing, and operations. In the following brief interview, Hornik talks about why some companies are more successful than others, how to scale a company, build a culture, vetting employees and more.
Dan Schawbel: Why are some companies more successful than others? What does the DNA of a successful company look like?
David Hornik: If you look at the DNA of any great company, you will see an amazing team at the core. While a great team alone is not sufficient to build a successful business, it is 90% of the battle. Great teams can attract other great people. Great teams can build great products. Great teams can raise money from great investors. The last 10% of the equation is a great market. A great team pursuing a mediocre market may be able to build an OK business. But a great team pursuing a great market will be able to build something special.
Schawbel: What should startup founders be mindful of as they create and scale their companies?
Hornik: Company building is hard. And it is a team sport. Find great people and trust them to make good choices. Find great advisors and trust them to give good counsel. Find great investors and trust them to be your partners. Going it alone is a long and lonely path.
Schawbel: How do you go about scaling a company, while maintaining a strong corporate culture?
Hornik: Every company has standard-bearers for the culture. Those folks are the ones who brim with enthusiasm for the company, spread company lore, only wear company apparel, call out behavior that is inconsistent with the mores of the company, etc. So long as the keepers of the culture are treated well and encouraged to spread the corporate gospel, the company values will stay strong no matter how quickly the business grows.
Schawbel: What is your process of vetting advisors, employees and CEOs?
Hornik: There is no substitute for speaking with those who know them best. Talk with people for whom they have worked. Talk with people with whom they’ve worked. Talk with people who have worked for them. You will quickly get a consistent picture.
Schawbel: How do you get every employee aligned with the company vision, especially as the company matures?
Hornik: Great leaders inspire teams to follow. I have seen some amazing entrepreneurs over time and they have no problem engaging the entire company around a shared vision. But great leaders also inspire teams to think independently and to innovate. Company vision can never be static. The best leaders listen to those around them and adapt.
Schawbel: Can you give examples of great leaders you’ve worked with and explain why people follow them?
Hornik: One of the great things about Venture Capital is that you get to work with amazing people. I have worked with stunning domain experts who garner the respect of their employees because of their incredible knowledge, like Kevin Johnson from Ebates or Rene Lacerte from PayCycle and Bill.com. I have worked with incredible managers who are masters of team building and leadership, like Godfrey Sullivan from Splunk or Danny Shader from PayNearMe. I have worked with incredible product visionaries, who invent the future, like Selina Tobaccowala and Al Lieb from Evite. I have worked with charismatic young leaders who are wise beyond their years, like Ashvin Kumar from TopHatter and Bill Clerico from WePay. I’ve worked with brilliant technologists who lead by example, like Artur Bergman from Fastly. I am honored to have the great fortune to work with these amazing entrepreneurs, as well as the many other spectacular leaders I didn’t have room to list.
Schawbel: How do you balance out a team’s strengths and weaknesses? Is it smart to find people who are specialists or generalists to fill gaps in a team?
Hornik: There is clearly value in diversity. But there is no single way to build a great company. Some companies thrive when made up entirely of technical talent. Other companies thrive when founded by business thinkers and product visionaries. Over time, companies can only scale when made up of experts across a range of disciplines (technology, sales, finance, legal, product, etc.). But focus and specialization can prove powerful at the earliest stages of company building.
Schawbel: How do you know if the company is pursuing the right market?
Hornik: Markets are tricky. The biggest and best markets don’t exist when you start out. Great companies create markets. Sometimes a great company creates a market out of whole cloth. My firm funded Atheros Communications when there was no such thing as Wifi, yet Atheros went on to be the leading chip provider for all things Wifi. My firm funded Splunk before there was any discussion of Big Data, yet Splunk went on to become the poster child for Big Data. Sometimes a great company reinvents an old market. My partner Howard was the earliest investor in Skype, which went on to reinvent telecommunications. My firm recently invested in Fastly, which is reinventing the Content Distribution Network, and AvantCredit, which is reinventing online lending. In each instance, there was a massive unmet need and billions of dollars of commerce attached to solving the problem.
1. How about a pre-cation before you start a new job?
Ever wished you could have some serious time off between jobs but felt like you couldn’t take it because the new company wanted you to start quickly? Then you’ll love “pre-cations,” a new perk from Silicon Valley, where start-ups are increasingly pushing new hires to take time off – on the company’s dime – before starting work. Some go so far as to give new hires not just paid time off before their first day, but travel vouchers too. “We want people to bring their best every day, and we want them here for the long haul,” Jeff Diana, Atlassian’s chief people officer told Slate. “Changing jobs is an important shift, and we want to give people time to recharge, spend some time with family. Because once you start a new job, you kind of jump all in.”
2. Could your choice of mate make or break your career?
The most successful people have particularly conscientious mates, finds new research that will be published in an upcoming issue of Psychological Science. Researchers found that people who scored highest on three measures of career success –salary increases, promotions, and job satisfaction – all have mates with a personality type known as “conscientious,” meaning that they’re especially reliable, detail-oriented, and organized. After all, “it’s a lot easier to concentrate on your next brilliant idea at work if someone else can be counted on to make sure the dog has all his shots, the car gets inspected on time, and the kids are fed,” notes Fortune. Moreover, suggests the researcher, personality traits can rub off; over time, people may emulate the behaviors of their conscientious partners.
3. When a manager is a jerk, does intent matter?
When a manager is a jerk to staff members, does intent matter? A researcher at San Francisco State University set out to learn whether workers felt differently about abusive behavior from a boss when they believed it was intended to motivate them – to light a fire under them, for instance, or to get a team to up its game. Psychologist Kevin Eschleman found that this type of “motivational abuse” is just as counterproductive as abuse that’s meant solely to humiliate or demean. His study concluded that employees who are verbally abused – regardless of motivation – are more likely to slack off or act out at work. That’s one more reason that companies should care about how their managers are treating employees.
Kraft Foods Group Inc. is a company perhaps best known for products such as Velveeta, Jell-O and Kool-Aid. But it also is trying to make a name for itself as an innovation leader with engaged and forward-thinking employees. One of Kraft’s leaders shares how its culture is changing.
Barry Calpino, vice president of breakthrough innovation at Kraft Food Group Inc., recently noted in a radio interview that there is an effort within Kraft “to push our organization and our innovation teams to shoot for bigger opportunities, more incremental white space, new categories and new usage occasions.”
While he admits that driving innovation was one of Kraft’s “weaknesses” in the past, it is “now one of our biggest strengths,” he says.
Part of that strength comes from hiring more innovative-thinking employees to join the company, which has more than 22,500 workers.
“Our people are our competitive advantage. When we recruit, we’re always looking for a diverse profile of talent. Our objective is to bring together diverse talent and unique perspectives … which, in turn, drives innovation that reflects the needs of the consumers we serve,” Calpino says. “With our big push toward Innovation, we’re particularly focused on finding creative, conceptual thinkers – especially for roles that involve ‘white space’ innovation.”
Such “white space” innovation means looking for new opportunities in a crowded marketplace, an initiative that has proven successful for the company. Calpino points to Kraft’s leadership as making a “huge difference” in that effort.
“Our business unit leaders set the tone and set the example with their sponsorship of innovation – and innovators. It’s important to have empathy to what it’s like to work in white space, given the high rate of failure,” he explains.
In addition, Kraft has created dedicated innovation teams in all of its business units, “which helps keep the fire lit red hot all the time,” he says, noting teams “feed off each other.”
Further, Kraft takes seriously its commitment to innovation by providing training, speakers and town halls, which “again, keep that fire burning,” he says.
Calpino acknowledges that while innovation can be exhilarating, it can also be difficult. One concern is ensuring that Kraft workers don’t feel they’re taking on too much.
“We have a strong stage-gate process that is designed to help teams deal with innovation challenges and do so in a highly collaborative way, so they don’t feel like they’re out on an island,” he explains. “Culturally, it’s really about leadership and empathy – leaders signaling to innovators that they ‘get’ the pressure and stress. They’ve been there, and they are supportive and have their backs.”
Calpino says that these teams feeding off one another means that the company doesn’t need to turn to gimmicks or other motivational tactics to keep teams engaged, “especially when their leadership is acting as sponsor and champion, and is highly empathetic,” he says.
But one concern, he acknowledges, is that the work can be so exciting that “I would actually say from experience one of the challenges is to not be too engaged or wrapped up in the innovation so that issues of burnout or loss of perspective come into play.”
Kraft does use metrics for key milestones, “results that happen along the journey from ideation to commercialization” – so that teams and individuals are “seeing and chasing results every step of the way, not just at the very end,” he says.
“This is also key for engagement – but also for retention of top innovation talent, especially those who are strong at the front-end but do not want to be the ones who execute in-market,” he adds.
Kraft was started in 1903, but in 2012 the company remade itself, Calpino explains. The international business, the Nabisco business and the chewing gum business was split off as a separate company called Mondelez International. What was left behind was the traditional Kraft brands that many consumers know.
At that time, the company decided it wanted employees to embrace a “fresh mindset,” he says.
“The most important thing is to drive hard against our agenda – and to track it and measure it. It’s one thing to emphasize innovating on traditional brands – it’s another to track it, measure it, and set goals against it. It must be more than talk,” he says. “And when we have wins, it’s important to share those success stories, to show everyone what’s possible, and what’s achievable. “
Still, Kraft isn’t just focusing on its traditional brands and launching new products. Calpino says the company also believes it must have teams building the future.
“This is one of the hardest things to do. It’s about having the right type of talent and keeping them focused on filling the future pipeline versus executing the current pipeline, which in any company tends to get more attention and traction,” he says.
“You have to be very deliberate about it – even amongst those groups make sure there are milestones and metrics and measures of success that teams can drive against and achieve. But they must be dedicated and focused. Where we do this at Kraft we see incredible quality and quantity of future pipelines and big ideas,” he says.
Executives and managers don’t often think of nonprofit organizations as competing in the same marketplace as profit-based companies. But even though these groups aren’t out to turn a profit, they still have goals to accomplish, deadlines to meet, and people to manage–many of whom have moved from the private sector. Here are six lessons executives in the private sector can learn from their nonprofit counterparts.
Timing is everything
Successful nonprofit managers know that in a crisis, distribution and communication needs to be in place before supplies can be disbursed. The same philosophy holds true for training, supply, and production in the private sector. Anticipating and planning—whether it’s for a natural disaster, a major product release from a competitor, or your own announcement—is essential to being agile in the marketplace.
One CFO described his concern for timing with this anecdote: “The Red Cross upgraded its emergency help phone system after 9/11 with funds raised for the disaster; this rubbed donors the wrong way when it was reported in the media. So timing isn’t just about doing the right thing at the right time; executives need to be aware of the perceptions of that timing.”
Establishing (and maintaining) credibility
As nonprofits know, credibility is hard to establish and all too easy to lose. Executives need to build trust with suppliers, customers, and employees. In addition to the obvious marketing upsides, operating ethically can have a positive impact on the bottom line:
One nonprofit CFO at a financial literacy organization advised, “You want [your company] to be known for your positive qualities. When troubles do come, this may be what stands between you and financial ruin. Think of the hit that Toyota took over brakes, accelerators, and floor mats. Decades of being the safest, cheapest to maintain, and [having the] best-built cars meant the company didn’t collapse outright. Its hard-earned credibility on the quality issue bought it a second chance.”
Maintain a strong ethical standard to attract the best
Employees who work for an organization with high ethical standards, profit or nonprofit, are more likely to stay. Maintaining standards doesn’t just help with retention though. Word of mouth can also open the door to a higher quality pool of talent. Not only that, it’s good for business.
To give an example, certified “B Corps” (Benefit Corporations) are voluntarily meeting higher ethical standards for labor and sourcing practices to distinguish themselves in a cluttered marketplace. While the initial ramp-up costs for certification are high (up to $25,000 a year), a 2011 New York Times opinion piece found that B Corps are using the certification for old-fashioned networking: with impact for the bottom line in terms of attracting better talent, discounts from other B Corp suppliers, and customers who vote their values with their wallets.
Nothing is more expensive than “free”
The senior vice president of a major advocacy nonprofit cautioned, “Everyone thinks volunteers are great. But volunteers need training. There are labor laws—even with volunteers. They can mess up jobs, leave you in the lurch, act racist or sexist, just like a regular employee—but with less accountability.”
Remember: Volunteers must be managed, incentivized, and trained. For the private sector, this advice clearly applies to any “free labor–including internships or studentships or other kinds of relationships that look inexpensive on the outside–that may impact the bottom line through damage to credibility or public perception.
Passion enthuses nonprofits, but a good manager knows the same passion can also drive a business. The executive needs to translate this passion for their services and communicate that enthusiasm to their stakeholders. If you are truly evangelical about your products and see them as filling a genuine hole in your customers’ lives, your passion will infect and inspire those around you.
The most successful example of this kind of passion from both the for-profit and nonprofit worlds is Bill Gates, who brought his early passion for computing to millions through Microsoft and earlier business efforts, and more recently his passion for improving global health through the Gates Foundation.
Trust your employees
One senior nonprofit executive noted that employees and volunteers who feel trusted perform better. This is even truer in industry. A 2008 study in The Journal of Applied Psychology found compelling evidence that employees who feel trusted have improved customer service and sales records over employees who did not.
When does the executive know when a volunteer or employee is ready to be trusted with critical or highly sensitive work? While there are few universal best practices, there are general principles: proceeding gradually with increased responsibility, having clear goals that can be measured, and perhaps most importantly, try to build “peer trust” or “horizontal trust” between employees.
Irrespective of business size and structure, management can learn from the nonprofit world by delivering the right products at the right time; growing their businesses by carefully tending their reputation; and establishing a track record of delivering on their promises and behaving responsibly. A good manager can also learn that cultivating a trusted workforce isn’t surrendering control but a way of ensuring that you never feel the need to do everything yourself.
The businesses that last focus on more than simply doing business inexpensively: They believe in their products and services and their staff.
Helping your team members develop their skills can pay off in all sorts of ways: They’ll get better results in their work, be able to shift more and more work from your plate to theirs, will generally stick around longer and feel more fulfilled when they can see themselves growing professionally. But what do you do when staff members are nervous about taking on something they’ve never done before and don’t know if they’ll succeed at?
Here are four ways to help employees step out of their comfort zones and develop new skills.
1. Err on the side of letting your staff members make decisions whenever you can. Managers sometimes get so used to making decisions that they forget to step back and let team members make decisions when circumstances allow for it. If you’re asked to weigh in on something and you don’t feel strongly about the decision, hold your tongue and instead leave it up to your staff member. If you’re always calling the shots yourself, your staffer won’t get experience thinking through decisions – which is essential to doing higher and higher level work. So when you spot opportunities to pass that decision-making responsibility along, do it. Get comfortable with the words “It’s up to you” or “What do you think?”
2. Give people stretch assignments and tell them why you think they’ll be able to handle it. Assigning projects that require developing new skills (or using old skills at a higher level) is one of the best ways to develop employees, since most people learn by doing. But in order to make sure your employee doesn’t feel thrown to the wolves, make sure to explain why you think she can handle it – such as by pointing to great work that she’s done in a similar area, or talking about strengths you’ve observed in her that will help her tackle this new frontier. Additionally….
3. Use a gradual approach. If your staff member is daunted by the thought of taking on a whole new type of work that she’s never done before, make it more manageable by breaking it into smaller pieces. For instance, rather than just putting a staff member in charge of training new employees, start by talking with her about how you normally train people, what it looks like when it goes smoothly, and what the pitfalls are. Then let her sit in while you train someone, or jointly train someone together. Then the next time a new hire needs to be trained, you might have her manage the process, but look over her training plan and reflect with her afterwards about how it went. In other words, ease people into new areas gradually, before you expect them to do it on their own without help from you.
4. Model the skill yourself – and talk about what you’re doing and why. Often people need to see and reflect on how a skill is used before feeling comfortable doing it themselves. So if, for instance, you’re trying to help a staff member get better at running strategy meetings, you might have her watch while you lead one. Then, afterwards, meet to talk over what you did and why, such as how you got the group to agree to an agenda at the start of the meeting, why you left a particular tangent run its course while choosing to redirect another one, and how you drew out quieter members of the group. This type of watching and reflecting can help people feel much more prepared to practice the skill themselves.
I spoke to Brad Feld, who has been an early stage investor and entrepreneur since 1987. Prior to co-founding Foundry Group, he co-founded Mobius Venture Capital and, prior to that, founded Intensity Ventures. Brad is also a co-founder of Techstars. In addition to his investing efforts, Brad has been active with several non-profit organizations and currently is chair of the National Center for Women & Information Technology, co-chair of Startup Colorado, and on the board of UP Global. Brad is a nationally recognized speaker on the topics of venture capital investing and entrepreneurship and writes the widely read blogs Feld Thoughts, Startup Revolution, and Ask the VC. In the following brief interview, Feld talks about the biggest mistakes business owners make, typical management issues that occur when entrepreneurs grow their businesses, and more.
Dan Schawbel: What do most business owners get wrong when first starting their companies?
Brad Feld: People, people, people. Picking the people you start your company with – partners, investors, and mentors – is critical. Many founders don’t spend enough – or any – time thinking about this. You are about to enter into a very long term relationship. Make sure you’ve thought hard about who you are about to enter it with, and they are the ones you want to work with.
Schawbel: What typical management issues occur when entrepreneurs grow their companies and how do they solve them?
Feld: Scaling a business is hard. There are many points at which the leadership and the management structure of the company needs to change. This often happens a lot early on, at 10 people, 20 people, 50 people, 100 people, and 200 people. You wake up as a CEO and you realize you don’t have the right people in the right roles, or the business has scaled beyond what someone is capable of, or there is a fundamental gap in the execution of the business. Great entrepreneurs are always thinking about this and building capacity and skills ahead of scale.
Schawbel: How does a successful entrepreneur hire the right people, manage them and then deal with expected turnover?
Feld: Recognize that you can’t motivate people, you can only create an environment in which people are motivated. As a result, putting effort into understanding and defining your culture and then only hiring people with high competence for the role and high culture fit is critical. It’s very hard to get this right, especially if you haven’t clearly defined your culture. In addition, when you find someone who is very competent for the role, but missed on culture fit, it’s easy to rationalize that you should hire them and then keep them around. But this is a bad idea, especially in a fast growing company. Once you start missing on culture fit, things spin out of control quickly.
Schawbel: What is the best way to scale a business or create a model that is scalable? How do you know if it’s going to scale or not?
Feld: You only know if it scales by understanding the economic drivers and then applying more capital to the things that you believe will create a scalable return. Many companies, especially those that are overfunded early on, spend too much money scaling before they’ve found product market fit. Spend money slower and really search for something that your customers and users respond to. Once you’ve found that, you can start to scale.
Schawbel: What do most entrepreneurs not know about business operations that would help them be more successful at managing their company?
Feld: It’s hard. It’s very hard. It’s messy. It can be extremely boring. As you start to scale, hire people who know what they are doing because they’ve done it before.
Schawbel: What types of qualities do you look for in the type of people you hire when your company scales? What do you try and avoid when hiring?
Feld: Optimally, you are looking for people who have been through the scale point you are at in an equivalent role. So – if you are 100 people growing to 200, you want to bring on people who have been in companies that have gone from 50 to 250 people. This is particularly true of executive hires. For example, if you are 100 people, bringing someone in who has never been in an organization of less than 1,000 people is likely going to be a miss. Ultimately, you still have to filter heavily for culture fit and should be willing to trade off specific experience in an organization at similar scale for tight culture fit and strong competence in the role.
Schawbel: Aside from hiring the wrong people, what are a few other mistakes that entrepreneurs make in the beginning? How do their problems change after the company has a few hundred people?
Feld: Over and over I see entrepreneurs being in denial about what is going on in their business. Every day brings new problems and you have to confront them. There are times when they pile up and are overwhelming. This is a huge trap – convincing yourself that things are ok when they aren’t, or that they are unchangeable (e.g. “this is just the way it works”) is a path to despair.
Schawbel: How do you create the right type of culture that makes for a successful business? Can you give a few examples from the companies you invest in?
Feld: There is no right type of culture. The beauty of being an entrepreneur is you get to craft the culture however you like. Some companies, like Moz, have an incredibly open culture (see TAGFEE - http://moz.com/about/tagfee). Others have a confrontation culture. Understanding what you want your culture to be is critical – if you don’t own it, it will own you.
If you’re like most people, you’ve thought at times that it might be awfully nice not to have a boss. Unless you’re planning to start your own business, that probably isn’t an option – but you can minimize the amount of managing your boss has to do (and thereby get some additional autonomy and independence) by taking care of some big pieces of it yourself.
Here are four key ways to benefit by acting as your own boss – even when you have a manager.
1. Pay attention to how to get things done in your organization. If you’ve ever had a manager who knew exactly how to make things happen in your company – who to go to in order to get something done, how to circumvent a cumbersome process, or how to get a project or decision out of limbo – you know how valuable that skill can be. You can cultivate this ability yourself, by paying attention to how things work outside of your team (how they really work, not what the process manual says), who has influence, what gets things expedited, and what approaches are most valued in your company. You can also learn by paying attention to the people who don’t have this ability – what are they doing wrong that you can learn from? Pay enough attention, and you’ll start to put together a roadmap that you can use yourself.
2. Make sure your time reflects your priorities. If you have a good manager, one thing she’ll do is check in with you to make sure that your biggest priorities are continuing to move forward and that you’re not getting sucked into spending significant amounts of time on things that simply don’t matter that much. But you can do this for yourself, by taking a few minutes at the start of every day/week/month and asking yourself, “What are the most important things for me to accomplish today (or this week or this month?” … and then making sure that you allocate your time accordingly. That also means …
3. Figure out what to say no to. A good manager will occasionally step in and point out that a particular project isn’t the best use of your time or the team’s resources. But you can also serve this function for yourself. One way to do is it to set up a “do not do” list, composed of things that you’ve deliberately decided not to spend your time on. Of course, make sure that you’re aligned with your manager about what items end up on that list – but thinking strategically about what belongs there (not to mention just having such a list in the first place) is a great thing to do so that your manager doesn’t have to.
4. Reflect on what you do well and where you could do better. A good manager will help you regularly assess what’s going well and where you should work on improving, but the reality is that many managers don’t give as much feedback as they should. But that doesn’t mean that you need to go without! Try setting aside time periodically to reflect on your own about where you’re excelling and where you’d like to do a better job, develop more skills, or simply operate at a higher level. You don’t need a manager to help you identify these things, and one advantage to reflecting on this on your own is that you’ll often be well on the road to improving by the time it even occurs to your manager to critique you.
Mentoring is often seen as a way for a young IT employee to gain knowledge from an older worker, but more companies find that setting up reverse mentoring programs can provide payoffs for every employee, no matter their age or rank. The key is making sure the program is structured so that the parameters and expectations are clear for everyone.
When older workers witness young IT employees making workplace gaffes like referring to the CEO as “dude,” they may shake their heads and sigh, knowing that the young employees have a lot to learn.
But when young IT employees watch older workers struggling to understand new technology, well, dude, they may shake their heads and think the same thing.
That’s why more employers are starting to explore reverse mentoring. At Mastercard, for example, Chief Human Resource Officer Ron Garrow admits that while he’s not a technophobe, “I recognized that I had a lot to learn about operating in this new world.”
So Garrow, 51, began participating in the employer’s reciprocal mentoring program. He was partnered with 24-year-old Rebecca Kaufman who taught him how to use Twitter and get more out of professional networking sites. He says that Kaufman not only taught him how to better navigate online connections, but also gave him greater insight into younger consumers and how they are changing the industry.
Lois J. Zachary, director of the Center for Mentoring Excellence, says reverse mentoring allows a young IT person to gain exposure to a senior-level person, “and the senior-level person gets to learn something” from the young employee.
“Senior people benefit from learning what younger people are thinking about. This can help, for example, if they’re developing a new product. A senior-level person needs that input,” she says.
The young employee benefits from the “face time” with a senior employee, also allowing them to learn something such as better communication or organizational skills, she says.
Research shows that employees often learn more from one another than they do from formal training, but successful reverse mentoring programs should be structured and overseen by a human resources department, Zachary says.
She also encourages such programs to set expectations so everyone involved knows what will happen, in addition to providing a reminder that everyone should “be real.”
“Sometimes young employees will start doing a lot of posturing in these situations, starting to say what they believe senior people want to hear,” she says. “Older employees need to encourage them to be genuine.”
She adds that these groups may be brought together only for a specific purpose – such as evaluating a new product – but should not be looked upon as another focus group. “This is really more about give and get,” she says. “”The purpose of it is learning for both parties.”
Reverse mentoring became popular when Jack Welch, former General Electric chairman, ordered 500 top-level executives to connect with those below them to learn how to use the Internet. Even Welch was partnered with an employee in her 20s.
If you’re considering a reverse mentoring program for your IT people, here are some things to consider:
- Acknowledge there will be bumps. If you decide to match Millennials with baby boomers, for example, there may be some preconceived notions. Baby boomers may believe that young workers are an “entitled generation” who aren’t willing to work hard and constantly want to be given a trophy. On the other hand, Millennials may believe that baby boomers are technologically inept and stuck in their old-fashioned ways. You’re going to need to address these issues and get all those involved to enter the arrangement with an open mind.
- Be sure to stress the positives. One way to get participants to be more open to the idea is by outlining the benefits they will receive in their careers. All workers, no matter their age, want to feel valued. By improving their skills in various areas, this can assure them they will be even more valued by what they’ll bring to the table.
- Choose participants carefully. It makes no sense to pair up people who are inflexible and aren’t open to learning something new, no matter their age. You want employees who have demonstrated a desire to learn, want to help their team and are interested in career development. At the same time, try to pair up those who have something to really offer the other person. If a senior person already seems to have mastered social media, for example, then maybe it’s best to pair him or her with a younger IT employee who can pass on more specific technology knowledge, such as working in the cloud.
- Provide training. To ensure an open and honest relationship, provide some training about how participants can best communicate their ideas or thoughts to their partner. Knowing what to expect will help alleviate any doubts or anxieties the participants may privately harbor.
- Measure it. For a reverse mentoring program to thrive, it should be documented so that the benefits are clear, and any adjustments are made to the appropriate areas. It’s also important to set parameters such as how often – and where – partners will meet, and the desired outcomes.
The Project Management Institute’s Pulse of the Profession is a global research study that examines the impact of the implementation of project, program and portfolio management. The “hot off the press” 2014 results show that in order to remain competitive, organizations must tie projects to strategy and place a primary focus on people, processes and outcomes.
Why are 44 percent of strategic initiatives unsuccessful? PMI’s Pulse research reveals the reason: just 42 percent of organizations report having high alignment of projects to organizational strategy. Furthermore, only 32 percent of organizations report that their projects are better aligned compared with those of a year ago.
Are you one of the agile few?
Organizations with high alignment of projects to strategy are significantly more likely to be highly agile (23 percent versus 5 percent), and agility is critical. Organizations with high organizational agility report not only more successful projects, but also more successful strategic initiatives (69 percent compared with 45 percent among organizations with low organizational agility).
Unfortunately, only 15 percent report high levels of organizational agility, suggesting that organizations are not prepared to adapt to shifts in today’s complex market environment and shifts in consumer demands and expectations.
An organization’s focus on agility and strategic alignment not only impacts the success of its highest priority initiatives, it also leads to better project performance overall. Eighty-nine percent of projects at high-performing organizations meet original goals and business intent, compared with just 36 percent at low-performing organizations.
Does your people mix drive high performance?
Organizations need to focus on the development and training of their talent in order to achieve superior project performance, successful strategic initiatives and become high performers. But talent management is a challenge, with two-thirds of organizations using outsourced or contract project managers and 26 percent of organizations planning to increase the percentage of project managers who are contracted or outsourced in 2014.
Effective integration of internal and external workforces is essential. According go the research, high-performing organizations are more than twice as likely as their low-performing counterparts to align talent management to organization strategy.
Do you leverage optimized PM processes to effectively manage change?
Two out of five organizations (40 percent) report that their effectiveness at organizational change management is higher compared to a year ago. Despite this, only one in five organizations reports highly effective change management.
The research reveals that organizations that are highly effective at change management are four times more likely to frequently use change management practices (94 percent compared with only 24 percent among organizations minimally effective).
Nearly one half (46 percent) of organizations don’t fully understand the value of project management. These organizations face a real risk to their success as significantly more strategic initiatives are successful when organizations “get” PM (63 percent versus 47 percent).
The percentage of organizations that report having a PMO remains flat at 69 percent. The use of standardized project management practices throughout the organization is also flat; today, only one-fourth of organizations report using these throughout the organization.
Benefits realization is the practice of ensuring that the outcome of a project produces the projected benefits claimed in the business case. This is achieved through the establishment, measurement and communication of the expected benefits of an organization’s initiatives.
The Pulse research reveals that fewer than one in five (17 percent) organizations report high benefits realization maturity. High performers are nearly eight times more likely to be mature in their benefits realization processes. Organizations with benefits realization maturity see 73 percent of their strategic initiatives meeting original goals and business intent.