The QuickBase Blog
I spoke to Kate Leggett, who serves as the VP Principal Analyst Serving Application Development and Delivery Professionals at Forrester Research. She is a leading expert on customer relationship management (CRM) and customer service strategies, maturity, benchmarking, governance, and ROI. She is an accomplished public speaker and frequently presents at industry events such as CRM Evolution. She has been published in The Wall Street Journal, Forbes magazine, and industry publications such as CRM Magazine, KM World, and Destination CRM. In the following brief interview, Leggett talks about how customer service issues are handled at the companies that she focuses on, how they track customer complaints and handles larger scale customer issues, and more.
Dan Schawbel: Based on all the companies that you work with, including your own, how are customer service issues handled from start to finish?
Kate Leggett: An inquiry comes in, it gets routed to an agent dependent on that agent’s skillset, workload and channel type (email, chat, voice etc), and gets worked on. If the agent is not able to resolve the issue, the agent will escalate the issue to a more skilled agent – a higher tier of agent – for resolution. The agent taps into back end systems, customer databases, knowledge bases to get an answer to the question. The agent communicates the answer to the question to the customer.
Schawbel: How do you track customer complaints to resolution?
Leggett: Every service request has an audit trail – when the issue was first received by the call center, how long it took to route to the right agent, to connect to an agent, and then to resolve. This entire time can be captured and reported on. There are reporting packages and analytics that track time to resolution for complaints for all communication channels used.
Schawbel: Do you have certain ways of handling larger scale customer issues compared to smaller ones?
Leggett: I am an analyst covering the customer service space. We do not handle large or small scale customer issues. However, most companies have a tiered support model, based on level of support purchased, severity and priority of issue submitted.
Schawbel: Can you explain the tiered customer service model that companies are using and what the benefits are?
Leggett: A tiered model allows customer service reps to deeply focus on a part of their business. Tier 1 agents are generalists, but don’t go deep into troubleshooting. Tier 2,3 agents have deeper product, industry expertise and can troubleshoot issues faster, with a higher rate of resolution. Tier 4 agents are highly specialized agents with deep technical chops. Not all industries have the need for Tier 4 agents.
Schawbel: What are some customer service innovations that you see in the near future? Why do you think they will be important for businesses to remain competitive?
Leggett: Here is my report for my vision of the future of customer service. Innovations are centered around (1) making interactions more frictionless (or pain-free) to help improve customer satisfaction and loyalty (2) making engagements more proactive, and even pre-emptive; (3) making engagements personalized and contextualized to their situation. My report summarizes the top technology trends to be able to do this.
Schawbel: What typical customer service mistakes do companies make and why do they continue to make them?
Leggett: The main mistake that companies make is treating the contact center solely as a cost center. Companies, instead need to look at offering differentiated engagement in a way that entices customer satisfaction and loyalty, which ultimately leads to increased revenue.
Read Kate’s blog on Forrester’s Top Trends for Customer Service in 2015.
1. Most people don’t want to be managers
In news that should surprise no one who’s ever managed other people, most American workers aren’t interested in becoming managers, according to a new CareerBuilder survey. Only one-third of workers aspire to management roles, with the majority of the rest saying that they’re satisfied in their current roles (52%), don’t want to sacrifice work-life balance (34%), or don’t feel they have the necessary qualifications (21%).
Harvard Business Review notes that the results “don’t necessarily reflect a lack of ambition. Today’s workers don’t have to be a manager to be successful – they don’t even need to take up a traditional ‘career.’ Which is a good thing, since for many people the corporate ladder doesn’t even exist anymore, as organizations have become flatter and options for moving up more limited.”
2. Why aren’t more companies embracing telecommuting?
Companies that are still avoiding telecommuting need to reconsider their stance, argues FlexJobs founder and CEO Sara Sutton Fell in Entrepreneur. Noting that only 10% of professionals work from home regularly, she asks why companies still see teamwork and collaboration as in-person activities, and argues that today’s technology and the tangible benefits of teleworking should have companies switching their practices more quickly.
Moreover, she says, Yahoo!’s and Best Buy’s well-publicized moves away from telecommuting in the last few years don’t prove it doesn’t work: “They only prove that telecommuting with little oversight and evaluation doesn’t work as a management system by itself. What employers miss is that proactive communication, performance evaluation, management training and employee accountability make the foundation for successful telecommuting, just as they should for in-office work. Without those components, productivity and effectiveness suffer just like they would in a traditional office environment.”
3. How being a jerk can hurt you at work
New research says that being a jerk at work might help get your ideas taken seriously in some contexts, but it will hinder you in organizations that value creativity. In a study published in the Journal of Business and Psychology, two professors set out to test whether being a jerk helps people get their ideas accepted and used in a work setting. Their results? Being a jerk can help in pushing through an idea when you’re already working in a somewhat hostile environment, but it will hinder you in healthier (and one might argue, more optimal) settings: The more open-minded and creative-thinking a group was, the less likely they were to take the ideas of a “jerk” seriously.
It’s easy to overlook the many failures that successful people have experienced. Without failure, they say, they wouldn’t have achieved their dreams. A look at what you can learn from people like Maya Angelou and Babe Ruth when it comes to setbacks.
There are several things in your career that are fairly well guaranteed: At some point you will work for an idiot; you will be convinced human resources is populated by Death Eaters; and you will experience failure.
While an idiot boss and the followers of Lord Voldemort can be worrisome, it will be failure that will truly test your path toward greatness.
That’s why it can be helpful to look at how the truly successful view their failures and overcame them:
- Learn from criticism. Best-selling author John Grisham had “The Firm” rejected by 28 publishers before being accepted by unknown publisher Wynwood Press, which printed 5,000 copies in 1989. The book later sat on top of the New York Times’ bestseller list for 47 weeks and was the bestselling novel of 1991. But to this day Grisham will often throw away many efforts when penning another book. “When my wife or my agent mark my stuff up, I want to punch them in the nose. But the problem is, usually they’re right,” Grisham said.
- Keep hope alive. Musician Jewel lived in her car and went hungry while traveling around the country doing small gigs. “It was really hard for me to ever think that I was special when I was homeless,” she said. “But people helped me. They didn’t know me. They didn’t owe me anything. They would just give me food. They’d give me $5 for food. That not only helped feed me but it gave me hope.” Frank Winfield Woolworth, founder of the retail chain, was told by his dry-goods store manager that “he didn’t have enough common sense to serve customers.” Noted Woolworth: “Dreams never hurt anybody if he keeps working right behind the dream to make as much of it come real as he can.”
- Never stop growing. Soichoro Honda was rejected as an engineer for Toyota Motor Corp. Without work, he started making scooters in his own home. Encouraged by his neighbors, he finally started his own business, which is now the billion-dollar company known as Honda. “Success represents the 1% of your work which results from the 99% that is called failure,” Honda said.
- Take your best swing. You may be tempted to give only a half-hearted effort if you continually fall short of your goal, believing that success just isn’t in the cards for you. But baseball great Babe Ruth not only had 714 home runs during his career, but 1,330 strikeouts. “Every strike brings me closer to the next home run,” he said.
- Be ready to dig deep. Maya Angelou, author of “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings,” was mute for nearly five years after a childhood trauma. She later found her voice, and had several jobs including fry cook, and a nightclub dancer and performer. “You may encounter many defeats, but you must not be defeated,” she said. “In fact, it may be necessary to encounter the defeats, so you can know who you are, what you can rise from, how you can still come out of it.”
When struggling with failures, it’s also helpful to know that research from the University of Kent finds that “positive reframing” can make a difference. Simply by trying to see things in a more positive light or looking for something good in a setback can help you feel more satisfied by the end of the day.
The study also found that other successful strategies that helped people feel better about failure included acceptance and humor. What didn’t work? Getting support from others socially, using denial, venting or self-blame, researchers said.
Dr. Joachim Stoeber, one of the researchers and an expert on motivation and performance, advises that anyone who experiences what they believe to be a failure would be best served by focusing on what they achieved, rather than what they didn’t achieve.
“’It’s no use ruminating about small failures and setbacks and drag yourself further down,” he said. “Instead it is more helpful to try to accept what happened, look for positive aspects and — if it is a small thing — have a laugh about it.”
What successful people have inspired you to keep working despite failure?
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Hurry Up and Fail If You Want to Succeed
Jason Seiden is a hustler. You know, the good kind. The kind that can make things happen through sheer will, gumption, and thoughtful innovation. Jason, an online marketing expert, is making waves these days with the launch of BrandAmper – a SaaS application that improves the quantity, quality, and consistency of employee brand advocacy.
I sat down to get Jason’s ideas about how regular folks like you and me, who don’t count marketing as a primary responsibility and have minimal financial and time resources, can start an effective grassroots online marketing program.
Alex: So Jason, I’m not a big brand with deep pockets. It this even possible?
Jason: Possible?! Who started the rumor that online marketing requires a major marketing budget? The reason online marketing looks expensive is because the media tends to feature tools built to accommodate massively scaled consumer marketing programs with the goal of turning complete strangers into fans.
But if you start with loyal employees – people who already chose to work for you – your probability of success skyrockets. The data on starting with employees is compelling: employees are almost 6X more trusted than company spokespeople and when you activate employees as ambassadors, you get immediate feedback about what’s working and what’s not.
Alex: But how do you win over employees so they want to be spokespeople?
Jason: First, make sure leadership is on board. They may be gray-haired digital immigrants, but they still set the tone, and it’s important that they lead by example. Second, make sure your employees have guidelines to follow. Has marketing ever created conversational treatments of your brand? Can an employee explain the company’s vision to a friend without sounding like a robot? Finally, activate your employees by running an internal communications campaign that gives them a reason to care, and then inviting them to sessions that show them how to convert their interest into action.
Alex: You’ve seen lots of big brands spend a fortune on marketing. What are the most important lessons we can take away without having to make the same mistakes?
Jason: One lesson we see over and over is that reach is nothing without resonance. All those retweets that no one cares about? Spam. All those likes you bought with the promise of a free iPad? Useless. When companies start with online marketing, they almost always chase that shiny viral object. They buy all these tools and content management platforms and measuring dashboards, and all anyone is measuring is how little people are engaging.
So if you’re just starting, skip that shiny object step. Start with your strategy, figure out what matters to you, put blinders on to everything else, and then blog and tweet and post and engage about that one thing until your fingers bleed.
Alex: What do you think scares people most about online marketing, and how do we get over that fear?
Jason: One-hundred percent of our clients have involved legal too early in the process to be healthy. Also: 100 percent of our clients have a manager who has expressed to us the fear that putting employees on social media will open them up to getting recruited by competitors. So based on our experiences, I’d say that the #1 organizational fear is the rogue tweet, and the #1 personal fear is losing one’s team.
To get over either fear, people need to get on the darn platforms. Seriously, rogue tweets are better managed by your presence than anything else, because as a leader, you set the tone for acceptable behavior. And as far as your employees go, who do you think is going to respond worse to your putting the kabosh on social media? It won’t be the complainers. They’ll complain but won’t do anything, because they never do anything. Your go getters are the ones who will take action. Specifically, they’ll show you why you’re out of touch, and then when you don’t join the 21st century, they’ll leave you with a bunch of complainer employees.
Alex: If you were starting an online marketing program from scratch, what are the first few things you would go out and do tomorrow?
Jason: Get leadership on board. But don’t start with a 50 person pilot. True story: Chipotle struggled when it was a part of McDonald’s because no matter how much it grew, its numbers amounted to a rounding error when compared to McDonald’s core business. When you start with a pilot in order to win over your executives, you’re creating a Chipotle/McDonald’s scenario because your tiny numbers don’t mean anything to the people you’re talking to. Find your executive sponsor first, then define success, then work with employees to define the program, and THEN run the pilot. If you want the shortest path to success, that means getting leadership’s attention before anything else.
Cooperation is a requirement for creating and sustaining change. You need to build a coalition because it takes more than one fired-up individual to effectively create and sustain change. Whether you have support or opposition depends on the beliefs, the motivation, and the habitual behaviors of those around you.
To determine the best way to obtain cooperation, first assess the level of agreement:
- Agreement on END STATE. Is there a shared vision? Do people generally agree on what they want? What results do you seek, what values are supported, what is the biggest priority, and are we all willing to support the same tradeoff to make it happen? Sometimes the theme of the company culture, the mission, or the vision of the organization creates a strong pull.
- Agreement on PROCESS. Does everyone have the same mental model? Is there a shared understanding that if we do X, then Y will occur? Is there agreement on which actions will lead to the desired outcome?
Agreement on End State, Agreement on Process
Interestingly when there is full agreement—both on end state and process—change is most difficult. It is by definition a status quo environment. When all individuals are in agreement on the process to execute the vision, they carry it out day after day. You have full cooperation… as long as you are going in the same direction. Though it may be tempting to not rock the boat, change in this case comes in incremental process improvement, storytelling to demonstrate a unique perspective, and hard numbers to convince people to change their viewpoint.
Agreement on End State, Disagreement on Process
Perhaps the most common scenario that creates a roadblock to change is when all stakeholders want the same thing, but they disagree on how it will be achieved. This is where classic, charismatic leadership works well. Articulating a clear vision of the future keeps people’s focus at the high-level and inspires them to just get started. It creates trust and comfort in risk-taking, often leading to persistent problem-solving, and resulting in unexpected innovation.
Disagreement on End State, Agreement on Process
In some cases, employees or teams have differing motives, in which case a unifying vision is either unrealistic or unproductive. Each is motivated by something unique so they have differing—and at times—competing, agendas. In this case, it is better to take the focus off of the end state and put it on the process. Many times you will find that a common process will take each party 80% of the way there to their respective destination. Gain momentum and keep it going by staying at the task-level; document standard operating procedures, provide training, set up short-range metrics, and focus on coordination of effort.
Disagreement on End State, Disagreement on Process
As a last resort, when there is little agreement on the destination or course of action, positional power or formal authority may be needed to spur action. When disparate groups cannot agree on what they want or who should do what, a leader with appropriate authority must take decisive action.
With so many distractions during the holiday season – from holiday parties to gift shopping to travel – how do you stay productive and focused when you’re at work? If you’re not deliberate about staying on track, it’s all too easy to find yourself dividing your attention between winter sales and eggnog, and coming back in January to unfinished work that you’d intended to complete.
But it’s not impossible to stay focused during the holidays. Here are five tips that will help.
1. Be deliberate about creating a work zone. Carve out space at work that’s free from holiday activities – so that when you’re at work, you’re resolved not to spend that time shopping for gifts, making lists for your family holiday dinner, sending e-cards, or otherwise dealing with the holiday pressures of your personal life. As tempting as it can be to just do a quick bit of online gift shopping between work calls, you can spend hours down the rabbit hole of bargain shopping for the perfect sweater before you realize how much time has gone by.
2. Schedule enough time for personal commitments. Most people’s personal to-do lists go way up at this time of year. Be realistic about how much you’ll need to get everything done outside of work, and schedule specific blocks of time for it. You might even take a personal day or two just to get your holiday shopping, cleaning, and cooking done. There’s nothing wrong with that – time off is there to be used, there’s usually less impact in using it at this time of year, and it will help you remain focused on work the rest of the time.
3. Be thoughtful about what has to get done this month and what can be put aside. It’s pretty common to get less accomplished this month than in other months (offices are quieter, people you may need items from might be away or similarly distracted, and things generally slow down). So be honest with yourself about what absolutely must get done this month, and then be intentional about prioritizing those must-dos and making sure that they get done.
4. Don’t feel obligated to say yes to everything. This is the season of social invitations, and if you feel yourself getting stretched thin, don’t be afraid to set some limits. It’s okay to down invitations if you can’t comfortably fit more commitments in, or you can set limits on how much you can participate (such as by dropping by an event for an hour and then leaving rather than staying all night).
5. If things are slow at your office, take advantage of that by giving yourself a break. Most people are more productive when their brain has a chance to rest and recharge. If your work and your office allow it, take advantage of the lull at this time of year to slow down yourself – whether that means taking more time off or just putting less pressure on yourself to produce at your normal rate. You’ll be more likely to come back refreshed and productive in January.
Managing multiple projects effectively and efficiently comes down to finding the right balance between being organized and prioritizing. Being organized is a must because attention to details is necessary, and the details can get lost very quickly when pace picks up and when projects drag on over months or years.
But being organized and detail-oriented is not enough and it can even become a detriment to success. You must also be able to ruthlessly prioritize, and focus your attention on only the parts and pieces that require resources the most. Here are several tools that can assist:
One-page summary: For each project, create a one-page executive summary that contains key talking points. This is your marketing document, and the basis for all your presentations. It is likely you will need to sell or explain the key aspects to many people over an indeterminate time period (and they may need to present on your behalf). This document helps you tell a fresh, consistent story every time and avoid re-work while doing so.
One-page project plans: A quick overview of what needs to be done, categorized either by category or timeline (or both!). This pulls you out of the weeds when needed, demonstrates the amount of work that has gone in to a specific project, and creates a template for similar endeavors.
Resource allocation: Track and outline, however roughly, the number of hours spent on each category of task, or per block of time. If you are (or potentially could be) managing a team, also capture the knowledge, skills, and experience needed to execute the work. This helps you obtain more resources when needed; and when resources are most needed, you will not have capacity to come back and create these records. As a bonus, when projects turn into process, this creates your “before” metrics for validating process improvement.
Documentation: Catalog any resources that will help you or someone else create or recreate what you did. Syntax glossary, definitions, screenshots, FAQs, archive of letters, communications, step-by-step job aids or walkthroughs, abandoned drafts, problems solved/troubleshooting instructions, etc. When complete, draw a high-level account of your documentation collection.
Some of these may work for you, while some may not. The theme is to create your own standard process for how you organize and manage projects—one that works for you. Memory is faulty and you need your brain to solve the difficult problems. Don’t waste your cerebral resources on locating the correct version of a document or reverse engineering that report you created.
Companies typically spend more hiring their sales forces than any other function in an organization, yet sales managers often aren’t adept at assessing the right skills to make good hires. It’s time to turn that around in order to drive better bottom-line results.
If you want people in the field to understand your strategic initiatives and demonstrate behaviors that will drive profitable growth, then there must be a clear roadmap to drive that alignment, says Frank Cespedes, author of “Aligning Strategy and Sales: The Choices, Systems, and Behaviors That Drive Effective Selling.” He discusses the issue with Anita Bruzzese in the second part of this interview that looks at hiring and how sales will be affected by an improving economy.
AB: When it comes to hiring the kind of sales people that will help organizations to better align strategy and sales, what should hiring managers look for?
FC: That’s a great question. Everybody talks about talent management, and I’ve yet to meet the executive who is “against” talent! But far fewer confront a basic fact: companies typically spend much more money and hire many more people, annually, in their sales function than they do anywhere else in the firm. Most people are surprised to know that even at online companies like Facebook, Google and Groupon, a much higher percentage of employees work in sales than in engineering or data mining.
To improve that hiring and the alignment of sales and strategy, the foundation is this:
- Understand the sales tasks that have high strategic impact. Some activities exhibit high performance variability but have little strategic impact. Think about PowerPoint presentations: some people are much better than others in doing this, but how much impact do the slides have versus other sales tasks? Other activities may be strategically important but have relatively little performance variability – because the tasks are standard, because technology has reduced variability, or because the business model limits the range of performance variance. Think about the difference between sales personnel at Nordstrom, where personalized service and advice are key to strategy execution, and Costco, where low price and product availability make selling activities less complex and variable. You want your stars in those areas that exhibit both high impact and high variability.
- Focus on how the salesperson makes a difference. Continually ask, “Where are we spending too much—and too little – time, money, and talent across our sales tasks?” Those tasks will change as the market changes. In subscription-based businesses like software and many consumer web services, key tasks early on are about customer acquisition. But as the market matures, key tasks tend to shift toward account management, reducing churn and up-selling or cross-selling additional services. Hiring and allocation of sales talent should change.
- Focus on behaviors in selection. Managers are excessively confident about their ability to evaluate candidates via one or two interviews. Studies across job categories indicate only about a 14% correlation between interview predictions and job success. This is especially true in sales.
Many sales managers hire in their own image because how each manager sold is what got him or her promoted and in a position to hire. But the best results occur when you observe the relevant job behaviors. Technology is making this more possible and affordable via game-like simulations, virtual video environments and online media.
The real constraint in many firms, however, is the lack of assessment skills by sales managers. This makes links between sales and HR important. Sales managers know (or should know) the key sales tasks. But HR managers typically know more about the tools, techniques, and options for assessing behaviors relevant to those tasks.
AB: The economy is beginning to grow stronger. How does that add to the challenge of implementing the changes you call for?
FC: Well, let’s hope the economy is growing stronger. It’s been a shaky, stutter-step recovery for years. A stronger economy is good news for society, but it does add to the challenge of aligning strategy and sales.
For one thing, it puts more pressure on hiring. Across industries, average annual turnover in sales organizations is about 25%, and higher when times are good and there are more job opportunities. This means that the equivalent of the entire sales force must be replaced at many firms every four years or so. That time frame shrinks if companies increase their revenue targets in a recovering economy.
Also, the prolonged recession had an impact on firms. During the past decade, the average S&P-500 company, of necessity, reduced its cost-of-goods-sold by about 250 basis points. That’s significant. But SG&A (selling, general, and administrative costs) as a percentage of revenue has not declined. Business success is about relative competitive advantage. The focus of productivity improvement is moving, quickly, from operations and back-office activities to customer-acquisition activities.
Finally, even a growing economy can take any company just so far. It’s tough to do good things in business without a strategy, and it’s even tougher to achieve growth goals without a sales force aligned with that strategy. Too many companies either ignore this truth or fail to deal actionably with what’s required to make it happen.
Your business or department is growing, and your old processes are outdated and ready for an upgrade. To minimize loss in talent, experience, and productivity, don’t start at Step One. Start at Step Zero.
Here are three great questions to ask your team before you begin the change management process.
The change from old to new is famously loaded with anxiety for stakeholders, even a change that’s long overdue. A combination of lack of details and negative precedent from previous changes can fatigue those stakeholders. At best, this will give them impression that this is a shifting of resources; at worst, they could perceive it as a threat. But as a leader, you have a chance to allay any deep concerns the stakeholders may have.
These are a few questions that will, at least initially, help motivate and engage the team members who are most directly affected by whatever new changes are being developed:
How do you feel about the current process?
You should have already done your homework on whatever system or process is being changed: when and why it was adopted; how long it’s been a part of the infrastructure of your organization; and how it interacts with other departments. Now you are asking this question of the people using it every day.
This will give your stakeholders the opportunity to tell you in their own words what, if any, changes need to be made. Pay close attention: You can learn the depth of knowledge they do or do not have, as well as what problems they have had in the past. This will be useful information later when pitching improvements in detail and getting buy-in. It can tell you a lot about the department you’re working with too, plus it will give you tools that will be useful through the change. The ability to explain and address the stakeholders concerns directly though the course of the change will be invaluable.
What do you expect the benefits and challenges to be?
This should help get the level of the room, and by that I mean determine who is immediately on board and who’s going to drag the process down. There are no wrong answers on the part of the associates, only chances to enlighten and inform. Change is rarely sudden, and you might have a groundswell of concern bordering on fear if rumors have already been circulated.
The people to look closely for are the early adopters and the skeptics, and you should address both extremes with caution: They can each contribute and hinder momentum in their own way.
The enthusiasm generated by the early adopters can be contagious. However, you do not want the early adopters to have any greater affect than the associates who are showing a lot of reluctance, because you don’t want to single anyone out for reward or penalty this early in the process.
More importantly, if you are too eager to see early progress and paying too much attention the overly enthusiastic, it could give the impression you aren’t listening to everyone. That you are favoring the select few who took an instant shine to the new ideas. Still, don’t be afraid to capitalize on positive emotion. Just be careful. You might even be able to rely on the early adopters to help find the silver lining when the unexpected occurs.
The skeptics may have practical experience with previous changes or improvements that will be very useful. Winning them over is a challenge worth taking, since they’re probably more experienced than much of the rest of the staff. Of course, the majority will be hovering somewhere between unwillingness and skepticism. They’re likely waiting to see how change is affecting them and taking their own ownership of the change. They’ll be swayed toward skepticism or enthusiasm but will at all times be looking for leadership.
Keep in mind that regardless of whether they’re moving to one extreme or hovering around the middle you’ll want your entire team to be comfortable with giving good feedback to avoid what might be, to everyone else, a bad course of action.
What haven’t I asked?
The virtue in this question is its simplicity. Where the first two questions gathered information, the last is a statement of inexperience to the stakeholders. By telling them, “I clearly don’t know everything,” you’re giving them the opportunity to take on some leadership, to educate and own the change process. This is empowering.
If asked with honesty and confidence, you open the door to input that could mean the life or death of your project. This will also give you a very good chance to start working on moving the hesitant toward a more eager acceptance of the new system.
There are many variations to these questions, of course. But my experiences have only reinforced the idea that stakeholder engagement is critical to success. The most effective change involves listening to and dealing with the anxiety. Remember, the associate who has the smallest voice individually frequently makes the greatest contribution to effective change at the ground level.
When change is managed well, it can streamline your processes and invigorate the people doing the work. These three questions will give you the opportunity to perform both fulfilling tasks at once.
When your dream of owning a successful business becomes a reality, the next step is to consider how to scale up. However, it may not be finances or production that may be your biggest obstacle to growing your business – it may be your own fear. A top entrepreneurial expert provides tips on how you can scale up your business and overcome your own psychological and emotional roadblocks.
Linda Rottenberg says she loves “Shark Tank,” the ABC television reality show featuring aspiring entrepreneurs pitching their ideas to a panel of potential investors.
Rottenberg, considered one of America’s top experts on entrepreneurship and leadership, says that she‘s a fan of the show because “it’s not just about boys in hoodies – it’s not just about techie ideas,” as demonstrated recently when investor Mark Cuban put up $1 million for one-third of a small company that makes neon-colored fruit wine sold in a box.
But it’s at this point that Rottenberg confesses she has a problem with the show. Once an investor like Cuban throws in his financial support, some may believe the product and company will now “go big” without any problems.
Not so fast, Rottenberg says.
“I have found that at the go-big phase, so many of the problems are human, are psychological,” she says.
Such problems include the sometimes messy things that go along with scaling up a business, such as firing unproductive relatives and giving up a day job to finally go all in on a new venture, she says.
Which is why she has included those important topics in her new book, “Crazy is a Compliment: The Power of Zigging When Everyone Else Zags.”
Rottenberg, named a 100 “innovators for the 21st Century” by Time magazine, says that through her work with hundreds of entrepreneurs reaching the “crucial” stage of growing their business, she has developed a list of the most common fears and how to tackle them.
- Closing doors. “People will cling to their old life out of fear,” she says. “We’re told to keep our doors open, but you have to give yourself permission to go big and that can mean closing doors.” For example, Sara Blakely, founder of Spanx, a multi-million dollar undergarment company, kept selling fax machines until she was booked on Oprah’s show. When you’re ready to scale big, it’s better to “cut the umbilical cord” because you’re clinging to your old job out of fear, not necessity, she says.
- Overlapping personal and professional interests. Rottenberg, co-founder and CEO of Endeavor, says her company’s research found that three-fourths of entrepreneurs in the organization’s network had launched a business with a partner. Of those partners, 70% were best friends, family members, spouses or in-laws. The study found that the worst-performing entrepreneurs did not have a shareholder agreement among partners, which can mean trouble when interests begin to differ. “That’s why you need a startup prenup,” she says. “When emotions are low, talking about what will happen in different scenarios. Talk about rights and responsibilities.”
- The small idea. The problem with stories that show how Facebook or Apple started small and became huge breakouts is that such over-the-top successes often discouraged others from scaling up their ideas because they think they have to have the same results, she says. “Most entrepreneurs don’t have big ideas at all; they have lots of small ones,” she says. She advises entrepreneurs to “stop trying to shoot the moon all the time” and instead embrace the idea that the smarter move is to make incremental adjustments, becaue what she calls “minnovation” captures more markets.
- Maintaining focus. Research on start-ups shows that those entrepreneurs who make one or two changes raised two and a half times more money, had almost four times more user growth – and were 50% more likely to scale prematurely than start-ups that pivoted either more than twice or not at all. Rottenberg says such results suggest that you have to be open to change, but not too open. “Don’t muddy up your brand with too many peripheral products or services,” Rottenberg advises. “Focus on what you do well, and exploit it fully.” While you want to experiment and explore, sometimes the best thing is turning away from the shiny new things and avoid getting distracted. As Steve Jobs said: “Deciding what not to do is as important as deciding what to do. That’s true for companies, and it’s true for products.”
- Executing correctly. When scaling up, make sure you don’t get ahead of yourself. Research on startups finds that most start-ups fail not because of competition, but because they self-destruct when they try to go too big too early. It’s OK to dream big, but you don’t want to scale up so quickly that you can’t execute well.
- Keeping calm. Reid Hoffman, co-founder of LinkedIn, says that while lots of gurus on entrepreneurship compare launching a business to running a marathon or riding a roller coaster, he compares it to settling the American West. “In charting the new frontier, they didn’t scale the plains every day. They broke up the trip into many legs. Step by step, day by day, they got closer to their dream,” he says. Rottenberg says that going big doesn’t always mean going fast. “Surviving the onslaught of tests during the scale-up phase often requires slowing down at points,” she says.
What do you see as human issues that interfere with a business scaling up?
Celebrating the holiday season at work can be full of landmines – like inappropriate gifts, disastrous decorations, and parties gone awry. I recently asked readers to tell me about their funniest workplace holiday disasters. Here are my 10 favorites.
1. Christmas tantrum
“A woman who had worked at our office for more than twenty years pouted and threw tantrums like a child if she didn’t win a door prize at the annual Christmas dinner. Every time someone else’s name was randomly drawn, she would yell, ‘FIX!”’ or ‘CHEAT!’ or something similar. And one year, she just snatched a prize she really wanted from the table and told the person who won the prize, ‘I DESERVE this,’ and walked away with it.”
2. Most likely to kiss under mistletoe
“We had a people scavenger hunt based on self-volunteered random facts. The facts were pretty innocuous, but one girl used it as an opportunity to flirt with a coworker. Her facts about herself were ‘Won Most Flirtatious in High School,’ ‘Voted as Homecoming Queen,’ and ‘Most likely to kiss under mistletoe.’”
3. Holiday skit gone wrong
“I used to work for an organization that was dysfunctional in the extreme. Each Christmas, one particular program director, who thought he was an artist, would write a skit for some staff to perform. There were choreographed dances, original songs, and worst of all, the entire skit was meant to be a parody of a particular issue that had come up in the past year. In the right hands and with enthusiastic participation, this might have worked, but believe me when I say that all of the jokes and plot points were in the worst possible taste – mocked people, brought up sore points in a condescending way, made those acting in the skit the butt of jokes about themselves, made off-color jokes about senior staff members. It. was. excruciating.”
4. Hanukkah balls
“I am a Jewish 26-year-old. I’ve been on the job about a year, and I moved from a large city to a smaller suburb of New York City for this job. My family is not super religious but we certainly never celebrated Christmas growing up.
My boss, a usually nice lady, has taken it upon herself to educate me about Christmas this season. She is super into the holidays, which I appreciated for Halloween, but has been declaring to the whole office how this is ‘Jane’s First Christmas’ and taking that opportunity to spend well over $500 on Christmas decorations which she has strategically placed mostly around her and my office. She has bought me my own Christmas stocking and ornament which says ‘Jane’s first Christmas’ with a date and her signature on it. She has placed red velvet bows around anything they will stick to and she has replaced our office coffee K-cups with eggnog. She has put up lights in the hallways and decked my door with some kind of tinsel that keeps sticking to my clothes and following me home.
She keeps reminding me what ornaments are and is amazed when I told her that I know the words to some Christmas songs.
She also has invited me to her home for Christmas because ‘no one should celebrate their first Christmas by themselves.’ When I mentioned something about celebrating Hanukkah instead of Christmas, she went out and bought this Hanukkah inspired contraption, which was really just eight round traditional ornaments with a light in each of them. She said they were Hanukkah balls.”
5. Hands off the holiday decorations
“One of my coworkers got holiday decorations banned permanently after he found all the human and animal shaped decorations (elves, Santas, reindeer, etc.) in the office and arranged them in compromising positions late at night.”
6. Keep your mom away from the holiday party
“My coworker’s mother decided it was a good idea to join us for drinks at our holiday party. She then proceeded to tell me how long it took her son to find a job, how it was not what he wanted to do or was good at, and how his lack of self confidence was due to the way his father treated him for most of his life. I wished I would have heard what she later on told our CEO.”
7. When your boss is the grinch
“Our team of five went out for a Christmas lunch last year and my (admittedly crazy) boss made a show of giving everyone but me a gift ($100 gift card each) …and then she made a show of pointing out how she didn’t give me one.”
8. Odd trophies
“I had a supervisor who was very unprofessional, and her being in her position was a bit of a scandal in the first place. Well, she decided to do an award ceremony during our holiday party, but instead of buying cheap trophies or printing out awards on paper, she went to all of the thrift stores in the area and bought a bunch of old Barbie dolls. She stripped them, spray painted them gold, and called them “trophies” that she presented to staff as an award. No printed certificate or anything to go with them, just nude, gold, spray painted Barbies.”
9. Holiday card misstep
“I very briefly worked at a law firm a few years ago, and my short time there included the holidays. A couple of weeks before Christmas, we all (about 15 employees) received a card with a prepaid Visa inside (about $25). The front of the card was a professional photograph of the managing partner with his wife and three children, standing in front of their enormous house out of state. One of the employees was his son from his prior marriage, who I am sure appreciated the beautiful photo of dad’s new family that did not include him.”
10. Holiday lies
“We had a fancy holiday dinner held at the boss’s house, and wine was served. My coworker’s husband takes it upon himself to get rip snorting drunk and tell the boss off for all the wrongs done to the coworker. The problem? None of those things actually happened. Apparently, the coworker would go home and tell her husband a bunch of sob stories about fictional incidents at the office, to get sympathy about her horrible day. She quit soon after.”
I spoke to Jeanne Bliss, who is a customer experience expert. As the Customer Leadership Executive for five large U.S. market leaders, Jeanne fought valiantly to get the customer on the strategic agenda, redirecting priorities and creating transformational changes to the brands’ customer loyalty. She has driven achievement of 95 percent loyalty rates, changing customer experiences across 50,000-person organizations. Jeanne developed her passion for customer loyalty at Lands’ End, Inc., where she reported to the company’s founder and executive committee as leader for the Lands’ End customer experience. She was Senior Vice President of Franchise Services for Coldwell Banker Corporation. Jeanne served Allstate Corporation as its chief officer for customer loyalty & retention. She was Microsoft Corporation’s General Manager of Worldwide Customer & Partner Loyalty. At Mazda Motor of America she initiated the brand’s retention effort. In the following brief interview, Bliss talks about the biggest customer service issues she’s seen, ways to turn angry customers into loyal ones, how she managed service requests and more.
Dan Schawbel: You’ve worked at a lot of companies in customer focused roles. What are some of the biggest customer service issues you’ve faced in your experience?
Jeanne Bliss: The biggest issues come from the right hand and the left hand of an organization not coordinating their efforts. A frustrated customer calls or emails, then that person gets passed around, as each area moves them to another area. Then once someone commits to helping, there are multiple layers of approval. This is happening around the world with great regularity. Customer hot potato. Customers leave because of it.
Schawbel: What are some ways to turn angry customers into loyal ones?
Bliss: First, “own” the customers’ experience. Start by asking about the customers’ life and what happened. Don’t start with the policy number or order number or begin by spelling out the policies that prevent the customer being helped. Care about the customer. For real. Then solve the problem. And apologize. People want to hear the words that you are sorry that the customer had a disappointing experience. Then follow up.
Schawbel: At Lands’ End, for example, how did you manage customer service requests from issue to resolution? Was this different than at other companies you worked for like Allstate?
Bliss: Lands’ End was grown from the ground up with a commitment to believing in and supporting the people who helped customers. Our operators (about 2000 at the time) did not have talk time. We coached them to deliver an experience. They were given tools and training but then were trusted. It’s important to note that this business was retail – without the complexity of insurance.
The insurance industry is working hard at turning itself into a customer focused operation and Allstate is one of those companies working hard at that. There are many more rules and policies in industries with government regulations. But with all my clients in these types of industries, the goal is to elevate the person who talks to the customer as the “navigator” — someone who navigates the customer through the complexity. Unfortunately that sometimes means the customer doesn’t get everything he or she wants, but they feel that they have been listened to and honored.
Schawbel: What do most companies get wrong about customer service and how should they correct it?
Bliss: Most companies think of the work as ‘customer service’ which is reactive – problem solving after something has gone wrong. We are focusing with clients on “Customer Experience” – meaning to be deliberate in connecting the silos to delver an experience across the customer journey. Customer service is part of the journey but it is only the reactive part.
Schawbel: What have been some of the innovations in the customer service world and what tools are companies using these days to handle this change?
Bliss: Regarding specifically helping customers in distress, companies are changing the rigor on the metrics that only align to internally driven operational goals, such as talk time. Instead, they are starting with who they hire in terms of personality, empathy – then they train to skill. They are coaching now to improve the outcome of the experience versus comply with those operational metrics.
Regarding the more holistic customer experience work – we are seeing this embraced with vigor around the world as companies (finally) realize that the entire experience is the brand and that being reliable is the only real way to earn word of mouth. That said, this work can be considered early days. But we have executive attention and are gaining traction because we can connect this work directly to business growth.
Schawbel: How can a customer service department be more proactive instead of reactive?
Bliss: Here’s one thing Customer Service departments can put into practice right away to help their frontline and customers:
Sit with the frontline and inventory the major reasons they often need to get permission. Rather than making them go through that step, work through their options at those moments. Train them and let the frontline be the judge of picking the correct option.
Schawbel: How can companies best hire for a customer support team so they best fit into the culture?
- Hire for values and personality first.
- Model the behavior from your best folks and watch someone take calls to see if they model the same behavior.
- Do a ‘customer service tryout’ where someone comes on for 1 week as a trial.
Speaking of trials, you can try Intuit QuickBase for customer service free for 30 days.
You don’t have to be Santa Claus to spread holiday cheer at work. Here are five things you can do to make your workplace a more joyous one this month – and no, we’re not talking about spiking the punch.
1. Spread “good gossip.” You might have a visceral reaction against the idea of gossiping, but good gossip is different from bad gossip. Good gossip means spreading positive thoughts around – things that you wouldn’t mind getting back to the person you’re talking about. For instance, mention how much you like working with Sarah, or how great Joe’s presentation was, or how wowed you are by the new guy’s writing skills. Be sincere, of course, but speak up about this kind of thing! It will make you feel good, please the recipient if it gets back to them, and raise the overall spirits in your office.
2. Help someone when you don’t have to. If you see a colleague struggling to complete a piece of work that you could help with, and you could assist without compromising your own work, offer to pitch in! It could be something as simple as lending an eye and letting a coworker bounce ideas off of you, or offering to edit a memo, or helping to defuse an angry customer, or just pitching in so someone isn’t stuck late at the office. If you’ve ever received a helping hand when you really needed it, then you know how grateful your coworker might be – and how much it can create a feeling of camaraderie and cooperation in your office.
3. Thank someone for making your job easier this year. Did a colleague or vendor make your life easier this year? Save your hide with your boss by catching a mistake before it was too late? Make what could have been an arduous project easy and pleasant? Maybe someone was simply a joy to work with on a regular basis. Tell them. Whether you stop by their office to deliver a heartfelt thanks or write a short letter explaining your appreciation, it’s likely to make a huge impression on the recipient.
4. Show up for at least one workplace holiday function cheerfully, even if you’d rather be at home. If you dread office holiday parties (and you’re in good company if you do), make a point this year of showing up and being cheerful about it. You probably won’t be miserable, but if you are, find someone else who looks miserable and talk with them. You can make it your mission to save others from tedium. Or if that’s too Pollyanna-ish for you, at least make an appearance for an hour or so, eat some cookies, circulate, and then head home.
5. Be kind, even if you’re stressed out. Holidays can be a hectic time of year – people are rushing to shop, attend holiday functions, travel, host family, and attend to myriad other obligations. That stress can spill over to work, and you might find yourself being short with colleagues. Make sure you don’t let that happen! Vow to be kind this month, even if your fuse is short and you’re counting down the days until your vacation.
Gross, known internationally as the “Bond King,” made headlines last month when he quit the house he founded over 40 years ago for a far less lucrative position managing a new fund at Janus Capital. Allegedly, he tired of the constant clashes with other members of the Pimco management team.
One might expect that Gross would be devastated, his ego battered and bruised. But instead, the creator of a $200 billion fund told Barrons that he was thrilled to give up his management responsibilities.
“I was always an investment guy, and the other stuff – hiring, paying people, planning, and so on – became a problem for me,” he said. “I am uniquely exuberant about clearing all that stuff off my dish. I’ll still be intense, but the intensity and decibel level drop a bit in a smaller place. Also, common sense suggests that it will be easier to implement ideas in a $100 million portfolio than in a fund with more than $200 billion.”
Leaders come in all shapes and sizes
This is, without a doubt, one of my favorite quotes this year. It illustrates that Bill Gross knows himself, and also recognizes that leadership and contribution don’t require a CEO title. Not everyone is cut out for – or enjoys – the tremendous challenges and pace associated with running a large organization. Not everyone wants to lose the day-to-day participation in the projects they love in favor of becoming a generalist removed to the boardroom.
Some, depending on their personalities and work styles, will be far happier and more effective operating on a smaller scale, or even as individual contributors with no direct reports.
We’ve been taught since birth that we should always be climbing – trying to get from A to B to C – when in fact that’s a very personal choice. Career paths in the 21st century are highly individualized, and what is right for your neighbor or your mentor might not be right for you.
Saying no to CEO
I’ve turned down promotions in favor of lateral moves so that I could acquire more diverse experiences and skills, and more recently I made a Bill Gross-like move by stepping away from an opportunity to grow my business.
The move would require me to focus more on administration and finance than providing direct assistance to the people who inspired me to get into this line of work in the first place. And as most of you know, I’m also raising two young children. CEOs don’t generally have much time for family life, and that’s not acceptable to me.
As I told some of my colleagues, “forging an empire is not in the cards. A comfortable salary, publishing books and articles, and speaking to audiences who can use my advice are all I need.” And the thing is, I genuinely feel this way. My inner sense of power comes from helping people, not from controlling the huge global chess board of the modern organization.
There’s nothing wrong with my point of view and Bill Gross’, they’re just different. And if the decisions we’ve made resonate with you, don’t assume the “boss track” is a foregone conclusion. How you leverage your unique talents is up to you, not anyone else.