Calculates the Present Value of a future payment. Rate is the discount rate for one time period. Nskip is the number of time periods before the payment occurs. Amt is the amount of the payment.

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Calculates the Present Value of a series of future payments. Rate is the discount rate for one time period. Nskip is the number of time periods before the first payment occurs. Amt is the amount of each payment. Npay is the number of payments in the series, spaced one time period apart.

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Returns a number that is the remainder after n is divided by d an integer number of times. (Mod is the same as Rem for positive numbers, but different for negative numbers.)

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Returns a Duration that is the remainder after n is divided by d an integer number of times. (Mod is the same as Rem for positive numbers, but different for negative numbers.)

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This function returns d if d is not null. If it is null, it returns a 0-length duration instead.
An undefined or empty field is "null." Null values don't work in calculations, which is where the Nz() function comes in handy. When Nz() finds a null, it sees it as a zero. So, if you want to perform calculations on a field that may include a null, use the Nz function.

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This function returns x if x is not null. If it is null, it returns the alternate value y instead.
Null means that a field's value is undefined. In other words, no one has entered any data in that particular field. It's empty. Its value is null.

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This function returns x if x is not null. If it is null, it returns the alternate value y instead.--Null means that a field's value is undefined. In other words, no one has entered any data in that particular field. It's empty. Its value is null.

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This function returns x if x is not null. If it is null, it returns the alternate value y instead.--Null means that a field's value is undefined. In other words, no one has entered any data in that particular field. It's empty. Its value is null.-

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