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Adding extra fields does take up space even if the fields are empty.
To be precise each text field takes up a minimum of 4 bytes, so if you have 10,000 records and you add 50 new, but blank, text fields, you've bumped up your database size by
4 bytes per blank text field
50 text fields
which is 2 megabytes.
For more information on the space taken up by the various field types, see https://www.quickbase.com/help/field_types.html.